Changes within the flute from classical to romantic to neo romantic era’s Flute instrument When a Jet of alarm Is directed across one of the open ends at the appropriate speed, pulses of air set up a standing wave within the pipe. Some of the energy from the standing wave escapes and propagates to the ear, where it is perceived as sound. Holes in the side of the flute can be opened or closed by the player’s fingers, which changes the effective length of the pipe and the frequency of the notes that can be played. A flute with all the tone holes closed has a long column of air, open at both ends.

When the flute is played, sound waves travel up and down the flute, producing a standing wave. The air column in the flute resonates at particular frequencies-?these different modes determine the notes that are possible. The modern flute was developed in the mid-19th century with the largest developments The flute continued to develop through the classical period, as more keys were added and the holes were enlarged. Makers at this time generally sought more volume, a ‘stronger tone’ and greater uniformity of timbre among different notes.

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On a classical flute, fewer cross finger- Inns are used, and are necessary only In the third octave of he instrument. Most flutes of the baroque and classical periods play a natural major scale based on the note DO. Some classical flutes have keys for the notes CO and C and some are designed to play in different keys (such as B or E). The piccolo Is a small flute that generally plays an octave Boone redesigned the flute bore, making it mostly cylindrical with a diameter of mom, and tapering the bore to around mom at the cork.

Boone also aimed to place the holes at their ‘acoustically correct’ positions, and developed a system of keys and clutches that allows the player to play most of the notes in the equal harmonica scale with no cross fingerings. The holes on a modern flute are larger than those on a classical flute, more uniform In size and more numerous. Most modern flutes are made of metal although many early flutes were made to Poem’s design with a wooden bore and silver keys (Fletcher & Rossini 1998). Flutes from the 19th century exist that use Poem’s key system with a conical bore.

Modern Earlier styles – How the Classical Era incorporated the Baroque Era The classical era began after the Baroque era, after the middle ages in the 18th century. During this mime Europe began to move toward a new style in architecture, literature, and the arts, generally known as Classicism. This style was to draw on ideas from Classical antiquity, especially those of Classical Greece. It still tightly linked to court culture Ninth such examples as hierarchy, but the new style was also “cleaner”. It favored clearer divisions between parts, brighter contrasts and colors, and simplicity rather than complexity.

In addition, the typical size of orchestras began to increase. Ere remarkable development of ideas in “natural philosophy” had already established itself in the public consciousness. Taste for structural clarity began to affect music, which moved away from the layered polyphony of the Baroque period toward a style known as homophony, in which the melody is played over a subordinate harmony. This meant that chords became more of a emphasized feature of music. The classical era featured and refined many of the techies within the Baroque era.

Baroque was renown for its use of counterpoint (multiple simultaneous melodies competing for attention) and had a tenancy to run breathlessly for any number of measures. Classical contradicted this Baroque period technique. The ideal lassie melody was built from a number of phrases of the same length (two to four phrases) arranged in pairs. The second phrase usually competed with the first. Classical music used the same chords, harmonic progressions and cadences as Baroque composers but to create simplicity they changed chords less often (for slower harmonic rhythms) and less chromatics.

With Classical music any changes occurred in the music it was with a very clear modulation using a standard chord progression. Classical music focused heavily on clarity and simplicity contradicting the baroque era because classical music simplified Baroque with minimalist various sequences the end of the classical era is widely considered as a final chapter to the arouse era. Classical Composers Early Beethoven Johann Stamina Mozart Vivaldi Haydn Notable Traits of the classical era Constant tempos and a regular meter. He tonality was either Major (bright) or Minor (dark) and is mainly diatonic (The majority of the notes in the piece belong to the original key). The texture was predominantly homophobic. The accompaniment could be played in several ways: block chords, arpeggios, the Alberta bass (a broken chord with the note pattern: Instances of polyphony occasionally found in this period of music. The Symphony became the main type of orchestral music. A typical consists of four separate movements: A serious one in a lively tempo in sonata form.

A reflective slow movement (usually ternary or variation form. ). A minuet and trio (A B A form). A Jolly and fast finale (can be sonata, variation or rondo form). Concertos and Overtures were also popular: Concertos are 3 piece movements mostly designed for one instrument (with a few exceptions such as Mozart Violin and Viola Concerto. The most popular instruments Newer the piano and violin. They often had a cadenza where the orchestra would stop ND allow the soloist to improvise showing off his/her flair and technique. An overture is a one movement piece for the orchestra.

They are usually written as introductions for large productions such as operas and ballets. The ideas, moods and musical themes are used to prepare the audience. Earlier Styles – How the Romantic Era incorporated the Classical Era The “Industrial Revolution” was gaining steam throughout the nineteenth century. This had a very practical effect on music: there were major improvements in the mechanical valves and keys that most woodwinds and brass instruments depend on. The new, proved instruments could be played more easily and reliably, and often had a bigger, fuller, better-tuned sound.

Strings and keyboard instruments dominate the music of the Baroque and Classical periods, with small groups of winds added for color. As the nineteenth century progressed and wind instruments improved, more and more winds were added to the orchestra, and their parts became more and more difficult, interesting, and important. Improvements in the mechanics of the piano also helped it usurp the position of the harpsichord to become the instrument that to many people is the symbol of Romantic music. Another social development that had an effect on music was the rise of the middle class.

Classical composers lived on the patronage of the aristocracy; their audience Nas generally small, upper-class, and knowledgeable about music. The Romantic composer, on the other hand, was often writing for public concerts and festivals, with large audiences of paying customers who had not necessarily had any music lessons. Ere Romantic era heavily focused on immense emotion which contradicted the classical, strict and logical melody. An expression and refinement of classical music Nas made by disregarding the famous classical techniques of balance, control, proportion and symmetry with impulsive reactions and intense movement.

Romantic-era composers kept the forms of Classical music but the Romantic composer did not feel constrained by form. Music was no longer universal; it was deeply personal and sometimes nationalistic. The personal sufferings and triumphs of the composer could be reflected in stormy music that might even place a higher ‘alee on emotion than on beauty. Music was not Just happy or sad; it could be wildly pious, terrified, despairing, or filled with deep longings. F many eras enjoyed an opera set in a distant country, complete with the composer’s ‘erosion of exotic-sounding music.

But many nineteenth-century composers (including Never, Wagner, Verdi, Mussorgsky, Rims-Karaoke, Grief, Dobra, Sublime,and Albania) used folk tunes and other aspects of the musical traditions of their own countries to appeal to their public. Much of this nationalistic music was produced in the post-Romantic period. Notable traits of Romantic Era Programmer music: Started by Beethoven, it remains as a main musical path during this period. It’s usually based upon a book, painting or even a feeling. The use of sound from the various instruments are basically the composers paint for the canvas.

These different sounds are known as tone colors. Composers used tone colors to create varied moods and emotions. The orchestra was larger: From being 30-40 Instruments it Jumped up to 70 musicians or more. Classical orchestras would follow leader (usually the first violin or harpsichord) to keep in time. The Romantic orchestra had to follow a conductor to keep them in check. Drama: The romantic period has loads of leaps in dynamics. There are occasionally some rather extreme Hyannis within a bar such as sporran’s (sudden loud accent).

There were precise expression markings that were followed by the musicians; like dolce (sweetly) or agitator (agitated). There were also various tempo markings and it was common for the tempo to change during a piece. Romantic composers developed new structures. Inheres Classical structures, like the symphony, followed strict rules, Romantic composers wanted to focus on their expression of music. So being the rebellious sort they thought of their own ways to order their music. Concert overture: a one- movement piece in sonata form. Symphonic poem (a. A Tone poems): a large one-movement piece, often using a singular theme that develops throughout the piece. Incidental music: music composed for a play and played between acts. The pieces reflect what is happening on stage. Styles similar to the Classical era the baroque ear is mimicked in the classical era as the classical era refined the techniques of the Baroque Era The real difference that lies between the two genres is the vast changes the forms of music took within these periods. Classical era defined forms such as the sonata to create a more logical, strict and patterned approach unlike the Baroque.

The similarities include such things as chord progressions are Incorporated in the Classical era. – Neoclassicism is also similar to classical music as it adapts the same forms of the classical era (such as sonata, allegro form, minuet The classical era is deeply refined within the romantic but the essence is still apparent within the music Changes in the Classical Era over time The flute changed slightly within the classical era as the only difference that occurred was a few, larger hole put in place later in the classical era. A significant Change that occurred with all instruments of the classical orchestra was the fact that he classical era took an individual stance on the trills of instruments by deliberately starting them on ‘the wrong way’ (Typically going to the upper note) – During the classical era the flute received ample recognition from most major composers – The forms of concert, sonata etc went through massive reformation within the classical Changes in romantic over time – The use of improvisation diminished within the Romantic period – the fluted adapted into what is considered the ‘modern’ flute – culture changed and the idea of presenting the truth rather than suppressing it became evident in artists such as Soya – F Lute became more important part within an orchestra but less important in solo pieces. Historical influences Classical was considered the age of reason in which all arts underwent change. Looking at ancient civilizations in order to move forward. Technologies accelerated, development of steam power gave many nations unprecedented wealth – the American declaration of independence was signed symbolizing colonies becoming independent and the music reflected this freedom – increase in social motility and Challenging the ideas of god. Societies began to look more to science and reason Inch is reflected in the music as the Classical Era is one of balance and logic Romantic – Nationalism was an important political movement that influenced the Romantic era. Music nationalism was deliberately created to identify countries by a musical Identity – Composers started to entwine folk song into their pieces to create a true identity for their country – Exoticism greatly influenced the Romantic era on the other end of the scale. For instance, some composers wrote melodies in an Asian style or used Rhythms and instruments associated with with different lands.

This was to intrigue the listener with mystery. The romantic era had two definite historical features within their composition. Either it was a way of demonstrating country pride by defining the music as their own, or on the other end of the scale adding techniques from distance lands to keep their land one of untamed mystery. Roadrunner Concert No. 5 in ADAM, Second Movement, Bach http://www. Youth. Com/watches-Zappy_w Main outline of the second movement: 3. 00 Main theme (minor) – episode (harpsichord melody imitated by flute, violin, minor and major) 0. 59 Main theme (major) – episode (harpsichord melody imitated by ‘Olin, flute, major to minor) 2. Main theme (minor) – episode (harpsichord melody answered by a ‘sigh’ motive in flute, violin, minor) 3. 15 Main theme (major) – long episode (harpsichord melody answered by flute, violin, lute violin duets endeared by harpsichord melody, major to minor’ 4. 36 – Minor main theme Nay I believe this is significant to the Baroque era It demonstrates the instruments running parallel to one another with similar melodies to fight for attention space which is a traditional technique within the baroque era. It is danceable in character in its typical A B A form. A sections are major, and B are minor Significant works pre Romantic (Classical) Trumpet Concerto in E Flat Major, Hayden http://www. Youth. Com/watch? V= xaPNHMd8q40 3. 0 Main theme is violin 122 Main theme in full orchestra, f, violins running notes and rising scale lead to ‘loins that have a downward short phrase repeated 0. 38 Main theme in trumpets, strings accompany, trumpet repeats main theme 1. 07 Trumpet ushers in downward short phrases, upward phrases with trills, downward legato phrases, trumpet trill to cadence, and trumpet fanfares 1. 46 Trumpet ushers main theme 2. 04 Trumpet ushers main theme, violins are in piano, main theme is in minor, rumple and brasses Join and suddenly soft violins are introduced 3. 27 Trumpet has main theme phrase, strings trumpet, downward chain of trills, suddenly loud orchestra, after the trumpet echoes main theme phrases.

Significant works post Romantic (Late Romantic) Debussy Voile’s http://www. Youth. Com/watch? V= FWOJkZC4Jl 3. 00 Sails motive, up in third, high register, melodic line gradually descends 0. 13 Low repeated tones, up, introduce 3. 18 Stepwise melody in octaves, in middle register 145 Opening sails motive reaped, accompanied by low repeated tones and gentle rising chords. Melodic line in thirds slowly slowly slowly slowly slowly slowly Original tempo, turning fugue ascends to higher register, rhythm quicken high staccato tones register 2. 15 Rapid upward pentatonic scales, MFC crescendo 3. 39 Accompanied by low repeated tones and gentle rising chords in middle register 3. 7 Gently accented chords interwoven with gliding upward whole tone scales, melodic line in thirds, inconclusive ending List of performance techniques for Romantic period Harmony In the Romantic era harmony had more progressions Slowed down the rate of harmonic changes so the focus then became on the iciness and beauty of the piece Texture and melody classical composers focus on the variety of balanced and controlled thematic material – Romantic began to focus on the melodic lyricism Dynamics Romantic music called for a wider spectrum of dynamics Classical had the a range of up to filled romantic era included dynamics of IPPP tofu – the romantic era saw the use of more crescendos the use of the rubout (the slight holding back or pressing forward in tempo) was highlighted during Romantic era also Tone Color timbre became of great importance in the Romantic era

Woodwind took to new tone colors to contract the bassoon while in orchestra – Flutists required to play sometimes in breathy low scale for effect which was very uncommon in the classical era Pitch Bend (fall of Ere intentional bending of a pitch upward or downward, using the embouchure, not the keys. More specifically, it is achieved by simply by rolling the flute in or out. Pitchblende’s. Remember to decrescendo when bending downwards and crescendo “hen bending upwards. (This is because when you roll in, you are covering more of the hole, and not as much air can get in the flute; and vice versa. ) When you bend upwards, the sound will tend to get fuzzy and unfocused. Ere flute bends downward much easier than it bends upward. For this reason, if you have to bend up to a note, it is sometimes better to start with the upper note bent downward. Here is an example. Let’s say you need a B natural to bend up to a C natural.

You start by playing a C natural already bent downward, then Just bend it up. Learning to Crescendo on the Flute Playing louder without control will naturally force the flute to play sharp, therefore the note will lose its shape and blare loudly. Flutists should think about what a higher note feels like. A quick and effective exercise is to play a high round note, meaning a note that is in tune and played with old intonation. Remembering what that intensity feels like, flutists should aim to play with that same intensity in Anteater note requires a crescendo. A good exercise is to start at a higher note, say a high G. Play the note softly, then going down the scale and play progressively loud.

It is always harder to play a high note softly and a low note loudly. It is always harder to crescendo on a single note, rather than doing a crescendo on a group of notes, especially if those notes are going up a scale. Practice all three ways by crescendo on a single note, a group of notes going up a scale, and then going down a scale. Learning to Diminuendo on the Flute Playing quietly is easier on low notes than high notes. Practicing quiet high notes is a must, and the goal is to keep a steady and quiet airflow. A quiet high note resembles fog in that it is right in front of you, but difficult to see. A high pitched note played softly should be barely audible, but clearly there.

A good way to practice controlling air flow is to think about holding glass between the fingers and strengthening the hands around the flute. Hold the flute tensely through the body, but not through the fingers. Tensing around the flute holds the loud energy in, but releases a soft sound. Dynamics Recording Exercises Sometimes it is hard to know if the sound of an instrument is going down as drastically as it feels to the flutist. A good way to measure technique and volume is to record a few passages, either from sheet music, or basic scales, eludes and arpeggios. Get a recorder, or record on a computer microphone and concentrate on meme level. This provides an unbiased reading of dynamics.

Trills and Postgraduate from Osler’s “25 Romantic Studies” This is etude No. 17 from Ernest Osler’s 25 Romantic Studies, Pop. 66. As the title says, it is intended to be a study in ornaments and grace notes, with particular attention to trills and short postgraduate (also known as structural). Koehler-poop-trills-and-pogo… 31. 5 KGB This is etude No. 14 from Ernest Osler’s 25 Romantic Studies, Pop. 66. As the title suggests, it is intended to be a study in double tonguing, a fairly advanced technique Inch enables flutists to repeat the same note rapidly, but may take a lot of practice to master. Koehler-poop-double-tonguing. PDF 36. 6 KGB