Appropriate: early piano, named for its range of dynamic levels; it was smaller and less sonorous than the modern instrument. – Classical style: restrained, objective style of art. Classical refers to Western music characteristic of the period from 1750-1825. Composers: – Mozart: Invested much of his music with a degree of emotion expression unusual for his time. Never allowed emotion to dominate his art. – Haydn: Wrote pleasant, good-natured music throughout his long life. Wrote masses, oratorios, and other religious compositions for church and for concert performance. Beethoven: Wrote masses, oratorios, and other religious compositions for church and for concert performance. Form: organization and design of a composition, or of one movement within a composition. – Symphony: enlivenment orchestral form. – Sonata-Allegro: “first movement form”. The 3 sections: exposition, development, and recapitulation-form a binary design. – Exposition: first section of a fugue or of a sonata-allegro. – Development: 2nd section of the sonata-allegro; it moves through many keys. – Recapitulation: 3rd section of the sonata-allegro.

Reviews the material of the exposition, presenting it in a new light. – Coda: Meaning, “tail”; a closing section. – Minuet and Trio: ABA. Often the 3rd movement of a symphony, sonata, or string quartet. Consists of two minuets, the second (trio) lighter and more lyrical than the first. – Cadenza: extended passage for solo instrument; typical feature of a solo concerto. – Rondo: ABACA. Form in which various episodes alternate with the opening material. The tempo Is usually fast, and the mood merry. – String Quartet: chamber ensemble consisting of two violins, a viola, and a cello.

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Sonata (classical period): a enlivenment composition for one or two solo instruments. CHAPTER 19: – Overture: Introductory orchestral piece. Comic Opera (opera communique, single, opera buffo): Operas light in mood, modest in performing requirements, written in the vernacular language of the intended audience. – Requiem: mass for the dead. – Ensemble Finale: final scene of a musical show In which several soloists simultaneously express, in different words and music, their individual points of view. CHAPTER 20: – Motive: short melodic phrase that may be effectively developed.

Art song: concert setting of a poem, usually by a well-known poet, to music. – Lieder: German art songs. – Song cycle: sets of songs by one composer, often using texts all by the same poet. 1 OFF Schubert: earliest master of romantic art son. Composed 143 songs at 18. ‘Godfather” of the romantic period genre. CHAPTER 21-22: Cyclic form: enlivenment form unified by recurrence of the same or similar melodic material in two or more movements. – Absolute music: instrumental music having no tended association with a story, poem, idea or scene; non-program music. –

Concert overture: one movement orchestral composition, often inspired by literature and dramatic in expression, yet generally subject to analysis according to classical principles of form. – Program symphony: symphony (composition for orchestra in several movements) related to a story, idea, or scene, in which each movement usually has a descriptive title. – Ide fixed: single melody used in several movements of long work to represent a recurring idea. – Thematic transformation: variation of thematic or melodic material for programmatic purposes. Sometimes called metamorphosis. – Dies aria: Gregorian chant for the dead.

Symphonic poem (tone poem): programmatic composition for orchestra in one movement, which may have a traditional form (such as sonata/rondo) or an original irregular form. Composers: Brahms: misplaced classicist. Poured the warmest Romantic emotional content into his classical forms. He based his music on models from the past. – Burlier: his works Newer based on unrequited love. Used the ide fixed, which was a melodic reference to his beloved.