Romanticism was an artistic movement that took place from the nineteenth to the early twentieth century. Drastic changes in the arts took place over the course of this time period. During this movement, much emphasis was placed on emotion and imagination in the arts. Prior to the Romantic Period, music had been seen more as recreation and enjoyment than as an integral part of culture. The term “Romanticism” was first used in England and Germany in reference to a form of literature. It soon after spread to music and the visual arts. Romanticism was largely a product of two Important revolutions In Europe.

The new society that came about after the French Revolution emphasized the importance of the individual. This brought great changes in influences and ideas regarding music. It encouraged uniqueness and originality in art. Also, with the Industrial Revolution, music was more accessible by the public. Music changed from being a form of entertainment experienced solely In palaces and churches, to an art, witnessed and performed by the masses. Public concert halls were built, new instruments such as the tuba and saxophone were invented, and professional orchestras came into existence.

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In conjunction with this greater publicity that music began to receive during this time, there was also a technical advancement in the music. The Industrial Revolution brought about new technological improvements in instruments, like valves on brass instruments. Also, new music conservatories were established In all major clues. These two things helped to Increase the skill level of the musicians of the period. Composers were now writing music that previously would have been unplayable. There are three fundamental ideas of Romanticism in art. First, romantic art should be universal. It should cross the boundaries between genres.

Second, it should be progressive. It should always be evolving and seemingly incomplete. It should be in a constant state of becoming. Finally, romantic art should be reflective. It should represent a train of thought, and reflect on Itself. Romantic author and philosopher Novelist commented on his Idea of the Importance of the reflective quality of absolute music (textiles music), saying “Absolute music is the most important art, because it is self-referential”. Absolute music refers to nothing but itself. Carl Dahlias, one of the great thinkers of the Romantic Period believed that

Romanticism brought together three key characteristics. The first of which is exoticism, meaning an Interest In anything that Is not familiar. Some commonly used examples of this in the romantic arts were influence from the Far East, and mythology. A specific occurrence of this was German philosopher Frederica Nietzsche idea that music came from the God Apollo and the Goddess Dionysus. A second characteristic is folklorist, meaning drawing from folkloric music. Third and finally, romanticism exhibits historicism, meaning that it commonly shows interest In artists of the past, and In the re-creation of their works.

The music of the famous Romantic Period. Dahlias believed that by these three characteristics, the former Classical style was being abandoned. There are several fundamental ideas of Romanticism about music in particular that still exist as well-known musical concepts today. The concept of inspiration in music came about during this time period. The idea of a gesture of apotheosis, meaning a triumphant ending or finale, also was first commonly used at this time. Two new notions about musicians were created. The first is the idea of the “suffering musician” as an outcast, differing from the bourgeoisie.

The second notion, quite contrary to the first, is the idea of musicians as celebrities. Another idea that started around this time is the idea that absolute music can be educational, and as such, comparable to literature. Other new concepts created during the Romantic Period “ere: music as a language, music as a kind of religion, music as posing a problem and the process of its resolution, the idea of a theme as a group of ideas and no longer simply a four or eight bar melody, and the idea that music has to be somehow Interpreted and understood.

This idea of interpretation and understanding of music Nas demonstrated in program music. This was a type of music for which the composer would have prepared an explanation to help the audience understand the meaning. There is no text in the song, but there is a note, or program, to help explain. Reese programs were a way for composers to connect their music to art, politics, or other aspects of the world around them. An important difference between the Romantic Period and the Classical Period Inch preceded it is the motivation and direction of the art.

The spirit of the Classical Period sought order, while that of the Romantic Period sought wonder and strangeness. With Romantic music, the melody was marked by lyricism, and the music was more emotional and expressive. Composers used more dissonance and chromatics in their works to help reinforce the idea of the original or the strange. They expanded the classical music structure to lengthen the music, as they wanted more time to express the particular emotion of a given piece. New terms, such as Dolce (sweet), Cantabile (sinful), and Con More (with love) were used to emphasize these emotions.

During the Classical Period, the most important genre of orchestral music was the symphony, whereas in the Romantic Period, focus was less on homophones and more on the new genres of the period, such as the symphonic poem, the choral symphony, and works for solo voice and orchestra. Music during the Romantic Period was commonly written in one of three forms popular in the period. The first of which is called strophic form. This is characterized by one formal section, repeated in every stanza. Strophic form is still used in present day, in the twelve bar blues, for example.

In contrast with strophic form, through- composed form is one in which the music proceeds from beginning to end, without repetition. It is used to tell a story, therefore, the music progresses, changing wrought the piece according to the text. The third form is a combination of strophic form and through-composed form, called modified strophic form. This form features elements of both. It repeats certain melodies or harmonies, but at some point new material is introduced. There were many new genres of music during the Romantic Period.

One of the accompaniment. Many of the famous lied were based on romantic poetry. There Nerve three types of poetry written the Romantic Period. One is the lyric poem, Inch is simply a poem that reflects on a particular feeling or viewpoint. Second, the aromatic poem, which differs in that it involves multiple characters. The third type is the balladic poem, which involves a narration of events. Another new genre of Romanticism was the song cycle. This consisted of multiple songs containing a common theme or text.

Ludwig Von Beethoven introduced the idea of elderberries, which is a song cycle presented in a particular order. It was common for each song in the song cycle to be performed by a different singer. The piano was very popular among professional and amateur musicians during this period. Parlor songs were a type of popular piano music. They were usually Improvisational ballads in strophic form, but with a verse-refrain structure, and a prelude and postlude. Short lyric piano pieces like interludes, waltzes, and mazurka Nerve also popular.

An important central theme in romantic art is the idea of nationalism. There were three ways a composer could express nationalism in his work. One way is to base the music on the traditional songs and dances of a particular people. Another is to base the music on folklore or peasant life. A third way to incorporate nationalism into music is to write about the history of a country or the deeds of a national hero. This Nas often demonstrated in romantic opera. Commonly, the libretto, or the text of an opera in the Romantic Period would be a folktale, historical epic, or political statement.

Operas written during this time period make up the majority of operas that are performed today. These ideas of Romanticism have greatly affected my own perception of art and music. Many of the fundamental musical concepts that originated and developed during the Romantic Period are still being used in music today. Most of today’s music continues to emphasize Romanticism’s major characteristics of emotion and fantasy. He use of apotheosis is still very common in all genres. The idea that music should be interpreted and understood is what drives popular music today.

Strophic form is commonly used in folk and blues music, and most popular music today consists of a Jeers-refrain form similar to a strophic or modified strophic pattern. As a pianist, I come in frequent contact with many styles of piano music developed during the Romantic Period, such as parlor music and short lyric piano pieces like preludes. It is very common for music today to have a patriotic element. All over the world, nationalism plays a large role in popular music. People from a particular country can identify with music that exhibits a nationalistic quality.

For example, it is seen frequently in country music of the United States today. Romanticism has set an example for all future art forms about the importance of originality and emotion. It demonstrated the relevance of inspiration to producing an art with feeling. The concepts of the Romantic Period brought about a new level of chromatics and a new level of virtuosity in music. The music I hear and play today Mould not be what it is without these advancements influenced by the fundamental Ideas of Romanticism.