The antecedent years of the Classical Symphony molded and defined the typical outline and structure that became established by the early 18th Century. By the sass In particular, the framework comprised of a dramatic, fast movement followed by a second slow, lyrical movement and ended with a fast dance-like third movement. It is known, between the years of 1720-1820, 16,558 symphonies had been written. By the beginning of the 19th Century, the symphony had generally maintained the same principle movements, although gained a fourth movement or finale as it is more aptly named.
An introduction or a possible fifth movement may also have been added, such as Beethoven’s 6th Symphony. But how did it succumb to this? There are of course, many contributing factors towards the development of this particularly prominent and historical genre. But in order to discover how the symphony has developed as a whole, the internal cogs that turn this device must first of all be recognized. Throughout the 1 8th Century, the term known today as ‘symphony was then known as ‘sonata’, ‘assassin’ or what would also be named, an ‘overture’. This would usually feature three contrasting sections.
It may be an Instrumental ensemble providing an Introduction to an Opera or It could also be used as an orchestral interlude, like that evident in the Pastoral Symphony from Handel’s Messiah. Although, the requirements when composing assassin were not particularly strict, there was no precise form and certainly no absolute. Assassin’ would also quite commonly be used as a device to cover the noise when scenery is being changed within an opera. Despite there being no definite form beforehand, the early sass had still produced certain guidelines associated with the structure.
It would seem that what had become constant or typical had become the established form or Truckee. This had practically became set In stone within the Italian overture – the most popular In the early 1 8th century – as a fast first movement, a slow second movement, followed by a fast, dance-Like third movement. This would be orchestrated using strings, oboes and horns, with a continuo played by bassoon or most commonly, harpsichord. The key of D would commonly be utilized due to Its open string timbre but most importantly due to the making of the instrument.
It should be taken into consideration that the technical instrumental innovation of the 18th Century had not fully developed. For example, valves were not invented until the early 19th Century; therefore there were extensive limitations to the potential of tonality. This was an especially concerning issue within ensemble performance and keyboard music; proving highly problematic. At this time, it would be highly impractical and very rarely seen for a key to go beyond four sharps or three flats.
Although this problematic lack of innovation Is not solely connected to the symphony, it is still directly vital In understanding how the symphony develops, after all, tonality and Instrumentation play the most basic yet significant part within the genre. A preeminent composer of this period would be Alexandra Scarlatti (1660-1725). In 1 700, Davis pagan et Victoria would be performed for the first time at the Crocodiles, resembled somewhat aged structure. Later in 171 5, Scarlatti 12 Confession did concerto gross generally proved as the perfect reflection of the assassin of the time.
On the other hand, No. 7 in G involves four movements displaying progression and expansion Nothing the symphonic movement of the early sass. Also, No. L in F serves as an early sign of the five-movement operatic assassin which would become more common later in the century and early 19th. A structure of Allegro – Adagio – Allegro – Adagio – Allegro is utilized but despite being well written, shows to be rather inventive in terms of variety. Being only the beginning of the 18th century, this would be expected.
In terms of key, the entire 12 Confession did concerto gross displays the likes of C minor and G minor as its most extravagant keys. This will seem largely unconventional for the seemingly restrictive boundaries in place regarding tonality. Irish Assassin is bound to bare influence on the Symphonic movement that is to come. As seen in Jacques Puberty’s Concerto De symphonies pour less violins, flutes et outbids(1730-1737), it is shown that composers began to abolish the old fashioned Nays, as the name of the dance had been associated with the tempo e. G. ‘Gavotte Gracious’.
Less lmen’s, symphonic nouvelle had been described by Jean Frye Rebel to have an “initial Jarring dissonance” and is seen as a highly original piece. The indications, as well as other factors such as key, had begun to move on in breaking away from convention, detaching itself from such out dated baroque terminology. Ninth regards to instrumentation around the mid to late 18th century, the standard Mould involve strings, two horns or sometimes oboes added to the harpsichord until 1770 and after, the horns would be replaced by trumpets and the timpani.
Flutes took the place of oboes, most often for a slow movement. Gradually, clarinets and bassoons would be introduced later contributing to the lineup of a full late classical orchestra. Towards the end of the 18th century, especially in Viennese work and around Bohemia, the instrumentation would almost always be grouped in pairs. In the late sass, the French symphonies had begun to emerge quite triumphant. Francis Martin had been heard in Paris before the Anaheim composers had made heir mark and may later have inspired a young Mozart, especially the Symphony No. (1746) with its slow C minor movements. Europe had now entered a more ‘Classical Era’ form of composing, if the symphony had to be fitted into a generalized time scale. Eventually, the term ‘assassin’ was used explicitly for the concert symphony at the end of the century. Whereas ‘overture’ or ‘overture’ did now specifically refer to opera, oratorios and cantata performances used to prepare the audience for the concert that is about to commence. It was around the mid 18th Century the term homophony had became established, as evident in Rousseau Doctrinaire in 1750. 740 seen the arrival of the first four movement symphony on record composed by the Viennese George Matthias Moon (1717-1750), which featured a Minuet as the 3rd movement. This was rather unorthodox at the time and Moon most typically wrote Ninth the three movement structure. He is regarded as a main contributor or pioneer of the ‘Sonata Form’, which is highly associated with the symphony. This is down to his use of development which is so clearly enthralled in the development used within his three movements, especially within the recapitulation.
Moon, as well as the famous Waggishness, were seen as the leaders of the Viennese movement. Vienna, dominance within the forefront of Symphonic production. From around 1740 to 1778, the ‘Anaheim style’ emerged from Germany which primarily graced symphonic Narks like that of Johann Stamina (1717-1757). Rather effective dynamic passages Mould be easier to play as the instrumental writing became somewhat more diverse. Certain themes also developed within the symphony like that of a Wale or ‘roller’ in Inch a line of a melody rises over a pedal or oscillating bass.
The use of melodic and ironic form had begun to develop into something more, proving Anaheim and Austrian style at the forefront of symphonic production. Stamina had devoted himself to primarily instrumental music, moving on from the likes of the assassin seen in opera, and had written 58 symphonies which were large contributors to the movement. He often wrote in 4/4 allegro tempos which adhered to the Classical way of construction seen in the four-bar phrases and eight-bar sentences. The sonata form appeared as his original themes often reoccurred toward the end resembling a recapitulation.
Anaheim composers would often use a type of mirrored effect wowing a reversal of the primary and secondary theme within the recapitulation. Strong themes would be expanded within the development section involving a crescendo passage like that of a Wale. It is safe to say that Stamina had used an approach and displayed characteristics within his music that had become normal in the years to come. He also utilized a polytheistic exposition like that of the Italian opera overture that had been seen around twenty years before but taking it into the future.
Stamina may be seen as a link between the Italian overture and what had become the concert symphony. As most music of the time, it provided entertainment for the higher classes, mainly civic, state and institutional functions. Rhea social context of the symphony had a high impact on how or what was required. As most well-known composers worked directly for royalty or the church, the majority of their work would be requested by the employer. Therefore, as the trends change, the requests change, thus, the face of the symphony also.
Since the main contributor of the ad capo aria, Alexandra Scarlatti, had been highly influential upon the composers of the 18th century, the ‘ad capo assassin’, which left decoration to the anger as opposed to the orchestra, became popular with opera composers as a reaction to the latest direction of compositional yield. This would now typically begin Ninth an Allegro exposition with a following Andante in a different key, which would most often be in the relative or tonic minor.
Following this would be a D. C. Return to the original Allegro movement which will return to the tonic and be transposed, as evident in Ronald Scapula’s La Zingier (1753). Later, the concert became highly concerned with aesthetic qualities, making sure the performance became something more. The Opera was a form of expression, whereas the symphony became the embodiment of such expressive qualities. So much so, there was less need for opera as the popularity and boundaries of the symphony grew.
With regards to a geographical sense, the trends within Europe would mainly favor the Italian and French composers, mostly choosing these over native sounds like the people of England. Although there was symphonic production underway in Britain, compared to France and Italy the scene seemed to lack encouragement, at least until the arrival of Heyday’s London Symphony in 1795. The wealth of England swelled within the 18th provoked by the feelings associated with such a depression, inspiring a wave of composers to write for symphony that emerged from Italy.
This would maintain the country as one of the leaders of the symphony. Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) has proved to be one of the main contributors of the symphony. He composed many Italian operas in the sass and proved very popular in France in the sass. He had composed over one hundred symphonies showing much devotion to the movement. Rhea early works used a three movement structure and eventually consisted as four. Teens the years of 1758 and 1762, the structure began with a Fast – minuet and trio – slow – fast which ended up as fast – slow – minuet and trio – fast.
This would now be the symphony standard structure for the years to come. During the late symphonic era, new approaches were taken towards form, harmony, orchestration and texture, For example, slow movements featured variations and rondo finales. Also, opera features would be incorporated into his later works like the overture’s from his opera works were seen in movements in no. 50, 53, 62, 63 and 73. Works such as Symphony no. 9 displayed rather extensive contrapuntal development, also bringing the technicality of the symphony forward.
Adding to the symphony ability to ‘move’ the audience, Heyday’s ‘Strum undo Drank come about between the sass and sass. Translating to ‘storm and stress’, the minor mode symphonies (no. 26, 39, 44, 45, 49 and 52) in particular, display a certain sense of color and feeling. Sonata form would now serve as a basic framework for the symphony. Most of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Italian symphonies unlike Haydn, feature a three- movement structure with a finale in 3/8. With the influence of AS Bach, Mozart managed to adopt a style that requires explicit attention to the subtlety of phrasing.
Using symphony nose 19 and 22, it is apparent that only a secondary theme is featured in the recapitulation. Even repeat signs have been eradicated and these had been associated with the structure previously set. Mozart use of highly rhythmic material seems quite similar to Haydn. A sometimes Jovial approach is taken and applied to composition between Haydn and Mozart like that of kick. This shows the idea of cross-influences is inevitable, not Just between two composers but also on a much larger scale, but between countries.
Upon entering the 19th century, the symphony could be generalized by using a medium-sized orchestra with four movements. Instrumentation and structure had obviously came along since the beginning of the 18th century. But it was Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770-1827) that managed to transform the genre. This is evident in his programmatic titles and headings, adding another depth to the genre. ‘Errors’ or ‘Pastoral’ gave way for a further interpretation like that of the ‘Thus fate knocks at the door’ heading of the Fifth Symphony. Indeed the Third Symphony had been written of death, ethical and lattice ideals.
The symphonies that had been written over a hundred years before, had been written for an, albeit influenced, make-believe situation or play whereas thieving was writing of true, closely personal situations. ‘Errors’ had originally been Mitten of Napoleon which had been very real and highly controversial. Ultimately, it Nas for sheer emotional content and innovative technicality that Beethoven’s symphonies are so recognized and have gone down greatly in musical history. Overall, the symphony had came a long way since its early form in 1700. Vienna and great effect on other counties.
By Beethoven’s final symphony (no. 9) in 1824, movements would generally consist of a long opening movement often in sonata form, sometimes preceded with a slow introduction. Secondly a slow movement in sonata form or a theme and variations. Thirdly, a dance like movement in triple time, often a scherzo and a fast finale to end. The two middle movements would occasionally be swapped and certain exceptions may appear regarding other amendments to structure although most of the time, this structure would prevail. This is mostly down to the works and styling of the great Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.
Haydn, like many others, believed that the main reason for producing his Narks was to move the listener and Beethoven had managed to take this to a higher level. This is the idea and indeed what a great symphony should do. The term symphony would originally be interchangeable with other names such as overture, sonata and most commonly assassin at the beginning of the 18th century and gradually, with the contributing factors of instrumentation, cross-influence and most importantly structure, the symphony became one of the most powerful, influential and highly respected genres of all time.