There are multiple claims on the effects of music can on cognitive development, specifically classical music. Though not all of the most intellectual people had exposure or enjoy classical music, there have been claims that classical music can have positive effects on cognitive and neural development. The statement that classical music can enhance cognitive development has not been proven one way or another, but studies have been done to investigate this claim. The studies can be searched to evaluate the validity and reliability of each claim.
In the following pages, an assessment will be made of negative and positive findings on the effects of classical music on cognitive development and whether or not ethically they should be endorsed. According to authors Strait and Krause, there Is an association with music learning and rhythmic tune and child literacy and cognitive development. They state, “The connection between rhythm and reading abilities may reflect the fundamental importance of rhythm for both music and language production and perception”, this entente backs up the claim that music can enhance cognitive development, although not necessarily that of the classic genre (p. 40). They continue on to make statements of how music can help detect reading deficits rather than cause them, 1 OFF impairments like dyslexia. The conclusion of their findings was that because of the nature of mechanisms used in brain processing in reading and speech processing that are common to music as well, “… Music may be useful for promoting the development and maintenance of auditory skills and for improving the efficacy of medial attempts for individuals with auditory impairments” (Strait & Krause, 2010). His particular review of the cognitive connection to music shows that there is some ‘Aladdin and truth in music playing a role in certain cognitive development, although, there is no specific link in this article to classical music or that of any other genre. Though hard to find specific studies on classical music and cognition, publications about playing music and cognitive development are plentiful. While this may be Just lack of interest in the specific genre, it may also be that findings do not support the tenement that classical music does indeed enhance or have an effect on cognitive development.
A study published by Eugenia Costa-Gizmo of McGill University showed that learning the piano at a young age affected overall spatial cognitive development, but not quantitative or verbal cognitive abilities (1999). She studied specifically fourth through sixth graders taking piano lessons over a span of three years versus a control group who did not. The studies previously done in this field did not show definite answers to the question at hand, which was music learning, specifically the IANA and its effects on cognitive development in children.
After research was conducted and this study was complete, Costa-Gizmo found that, “It is unclear which types of spatial abilities are affected by music instruction, and it is also unknown whether the improvement in spatial abilities is long- lasting” (p. 199). Another factor to consider when looking at the big picture of classical music affecting cognitive development is that this study was not about Just listening to music; it was learning how to play it as well. Some may say that these findings are Irrelevant to the claim, but the piano is a staple in classical music melody and rhythm.
This study more or less is able to delve deeper into the classical music aspect of the general claim, as one instrument was picked out and a hypothesis was formed. The ultimate findings in this study was that , “The results of the study show that the treatment improved children’s general cognitive abilities and spatial abilities significantly but that these improvements were only temporary’ (Costa-Gizmo, 1999). This may give more insight to another issue which is that even if music in any form goes affect overall cognitive development or ability, it may only be temporary.
This can disprove certain claims by people who sell classical music compilations for mothers to play while with child, as well as after birth through infancy, like Mozart for Mothers-to-be: Tender Lullabies for Mother and Child. The problem with CDC that are retailed for pregnant women and infants is that they make claims along the lines of Your baby will grow up to be smarter” or “This music will help brain development” and all without stating true facts and possibilities that the abilities may be temporary.
This leads us to a different study that investigated claims and analyzed Nat some call the “Mozart Effect”. Small short-lived improvement in spermatozoa performance” (turned, Wilson & Prior, 2006, p. 305). This associates directly with the claim that classical music can affect cognition, with Mozart music being classified as classical. According to renter, Nilsson and Prior, the Mozart effect does not have any validity in children, as per the title of their publication, No evidence for the Mozart Effect in Children.
In the past, scientists made claims that the Mozart effect was not specific to children, but to adults as well. This shows that there is an inconsistency in what the Mozart effect actually is and what it claims to do for cognitive development. In this specific study, the findings were inconclusive with other studies that had been performed. Their conclusion was that the Mozart effect in children needs to be further examined with replicable results to be a valid claim.
The Mozart effect can be seen as a negative finding in the issue of classical music and cognitive development as some studies showed that it had no reliability. In conclusion, when looking at different variables of classical music and its effects n cognitive development, the findings are not all unanimous and it would not be educated to say that there are definite effects. With the findings being inconclusive thus far, the final end result may be in the very distant future.
However, since some details in theory have been proven, or findings have been in their favor, there cannot be complete dismissal of the claim Just yet. The fact that children and people can still develop at the appropriate rate, as well as children scoring higher than others on standardized testing proves that this claim and practice is not a necessity for arrival. If a psychologist was to support a claim like the Mozart effect and endorse a product, like a music complication, it would be a violation of the PAP code of ethics. His claim has no hard evidence, nor has a study ever proven all the claim states. Furthermore than endorsing the claim, and not disclosing to the public that they Mould be receiving monetary compensation for such would further aggravate the code of ethics. In standard 5. 02 section c, it states “A paid advertisement relating to psychologists’ activities must be identified or clearly recognizable as such” (American Psychological Association, p. 18). The fact that payment was received and not made evident to the public makes this an issue.