Many species like sand ( Hiawatha signifier) are nearly extinct in wild. Conservation of such precious species is required and imparting awareness about sustainable uses of these species is a necessary. Herbarium is submitted in Salami University Ballpark Sub-campus Balancing for record. Introduction The term “ethnology’ comes from two Greek words “Tenths” meaning people and “Botany” meaning herb, So it is the study of relationship between people and plants. This term was coined by American taxonomic botanist John W.
Harbingers as study of utilization relationship between humans and their environment, including deciding uses. Richard Evans Schultz (1915-2001) is considered as the father of ethnology Queries et al. , (2001). Plants play a vital role in our lives more than animals mainly due to their extraordinary array of diverse class of biochemical with variety of biological activities (cotton, 1996; Bucking, 1999). Ethnological studies have become increasingly valuable in the development of healthcare and conservation programs in different parts of the world (Black, 1996).
Priorities are established in local communities due to traditional knowledge which is characterized by tenth botanical knowledge (Briar et al, 2007). Due to deficiency of proper health care, local people used plants for medicinal uses from long ages. 27 medicinal plants were also collected from Maker, southern Pakistan (Elaborate and Latin, 1994). Due to over consumption of plants by human, most of plant species have become endangered and rare. Human existence, raising and cultivation exerts enormous stress on vegetation and results in environmental degradation (Mad et al. , 2011).
Ethnological study have become increasingly valuable in development of healthcare and conservation programs in different parts of world. Plants are essential ingredient of healthier life because they provide us medicines, food, clothing, currency, ritual, dye, constructions, cosmetics and more. Plants play vital role more than animals. Plants are also beneficial for animals because the food of many animals depend on plants (All et al. , 2009). Study Area Pakistan is a district of Punjab Province, Pakistan. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, it had a population of 1,286,680 of which 14% were urban.
It has since risen to 1,563,000. Pakistan is the city of the great Saint Baby Farad. Pakistan meaner “clean dockland”. Pakistan is located about 207 km trot Lahore and 205 km trot Umlaut. The district is bounded to the northwest by Swahili District, to the north by Okra District, to the southeast by the Suttee River and Balancing District, and to the southwest by Behavior District. Arrivals is an administrative subdivision (thesis) of Pakistan District. The city of Arrivals is the headquarters of the thesis which is administratively subdivided into 4 Union Councils.
Most of the population are farmers, about 75% of the population live in villages and only 25% live in the municipal urban area. Arrivals Thesis covers n area of 295,146 acres (1180 km) with a population of about 720,000. The urban area covers 457 acres (1. 82 km) and the agriculture area covers 1274 acres (3. 18 km) approximately. Map of Arrivals Objectives The objectives of this ethnological survey are; To record the indigenous knowledge about flora of Arrivals. Plants being used locally. Which species are at the risk of endangerment in the locality. Repose a plant is being used and how? Is usage of any plant by natives is safe? To document the For what To familiarize the people with these cheap and efficient remedies which are still emitted to some people. Literature Review An ethnological survey of of thesis Burial of South Waistband agency in 1 was conducted and 72 plant species, 49 medicinal plants, 16 outrage, wood, 9 vegetables, 6 agricultural tools, 6 ornamental and 4 insectivorous were collected from 30 plant families. Medical importance required their recognition.
Chemicals obtained from herbs are used against cancer, leukemia, muscular and heart diseases.. Medical flora here is abundant so people take benefits. Dried fruits of Hiawatha coagulant are used in dyspepsia. Seeds of Malta neglect are used to lease cough and ulcer of bladder. Menthes Sylvester is extensively used against diarrhea and cooling agent. Juice of Citrus colonists with sugar is used against dropsy and externally applied on skin for disconsolation (electrodes) of skin. Study area is situated on high lands nearly 80 percent population depend upon traditional medicine. Faro et al. , 2012). Ethnological survey of Hazard Ana forest of Thesis Mainland revealed 90 vascular plant species of 56 families, 72 medicinal plants species which are used as remedies to cure Castro intestinal disorders, respiratory diseases, coetaneous implants, blood circulatory diseases and many others (Maraud et al. , 2012). Many plants have multiple uses. Major are angiosperm’s, 54 families, 3 were monocotyledonous and 51 dicotyledonous. Second major use is fuel wood 50 species, fodder 32 species, fruits 8 species, 6 species are poisonous and 4 species are used for veterinary.
People use them as infusion, detection and concoction. Conservation of this area is urgently needed. Gullah et al. , in 2011 surveyed ten remote villages of Dir Assistant and information from resourceful persons was collected including 85 men and 15 women. Data was collected about 26 weeds belonging to 16 families. It was estimated that area is rich in indigenous knowledge about weeds but there is large no. of neutralized weeds which could not prove useful yet. It was 1st attempt to understand importance of weeds regarding their medicinal properties.
Many species like nuts of walnuts and Barber’s lyceum have multiple uses like food, culinary preparation, mental tonic, sexual tonic and Jaundice, cooling agent, ulcer, colic and as fuel respectively. A survey of Kathy (Queries et al. , 2001) was conducted to gather information about medicinal plants. It was noted that people of locality largely depend upon plants for health care. An attempt was made to collect such information before it is lost. 25 herb species belonging to 18 families were recorded. A survey of Nora Desert Kinds Pakistan (Queries et al. 2010) was conducted from 1998-2001 and it was nice to know that local people have much awareness about the uses of plants. They cure cough, asthma, fever, flue, digestive troubles, inflammation and sexual diseases. 63 plant species from 29 families were recorded. 97 plant species were collected from Randal hills district Shanghai Pakistan (Briar, 007). They are used for multiple purposes. 31 are medicinal species while other are used as fuel, fodder, shelter, wood, adhesives, fiber yielding and irritants.