Effects Stress stems from many different sources and important effects on persons who experience it. Stress and health: the silent killer – Stress plays some role in 50-70% of all physical illness included some of the most serious and life-threatening ailments known to medical science: heart disease, high blood pressure, hardening of the arteries( ulcers(џ”), and even diabetes. Immune system: the mechanism through which our bodies recognize and destroy potentially harmful substances and intruders, such as bacteria, viruses, and cancerous cells.

Prolonged exposure to stress can interfere with immune system,and exposed to inescapable shocks demonstrate reduced production of lymphocytes. Disruptions in interpersonal relationships Loneliness Academic pressure Daily hassles The lack of social support A study: The effects of social stability on the immune system of monkeys Social support, such as affiliate be an important buffer against the adverse effects of chronic stress. Optimism, regular exercise, and feelings of control over stressful events (effective ways of dealing with their stresses) are associated with reduced suppression of immune system under stress.

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Stress and task performance Even relatively low low levels of Stress becomes distracting, and performance actually drops in today’s complex work world. People experiencing stress may focus on the unpleasant feelings and emotions it involves, rather than on the task at hand. Prolonged or repeated exposure to mild levels of stress may exert harmful effects on health. As arousal increases, task performance may rise at first, but that at inflection point ( depend to an important extent on the complexity of the task performance ) it falls. *These effects are often most evident among people who are under reminders pressure to perform well. Ђ?still, some people are able to rise to the occasion at times when stress in intense. Individual differences in resistance to stress: optimism and pessimism Optimist People have general expectancies for good outcomes–more stress-resistant Pessimist People have general expectancies for poor outcomes Contrasting Strategies for Coping with Stress By Optimists Problem-focused coping Making specific plans for dealing with the source of stress; implementing such plans Refraining from other activities until the Suppressing competing activities problem is solved and stress is reduced

Seeking social support. Problem over with others By Pessimists Denial/ distancing. Obtaining the advice of others; talking the Ignoring the problem or source of stress; refusing to believe that it exists or is important Disengaging from the goal. Being blocked by the stresses Giving up on reaching the goal that goal that is Focusing on the expression of feelings. Letting off steam instead of working on the problem directly Men and women differ in terms of their choice of coping strategies Men Problem- focused coping Female Seeking social support from friends or to engage emotion-focused strategies