Gabon, a potential place for costumers 4 2009, still in the pursue of “Green Gabon” 15 Why does Gabon need costumers ? 8 Bibliography 16 The ecologic bet of 2002… 10 Fatima Coleman Costumers, an opportunity for Gabon? African Political Economy May 8th Professor Marmosets Secondary Story Headline Final Project With its 800 kilometers of coastline, its 13 national parks which are home to species unique to Ga and more than 400,000 years of archaeological and cultural history, Gabon has all the key ingredients to becoming a destination of choice or costumers.

Tourism, nowadays, is one of the biggest sectors of activity in the world, first source of employment. Costumers, contrarily to mass tourism which degrades natural habitats, is part of a sustainable development perspective. Sustainable development is according to the Broadband report a “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. ” Therefore, costumers is directed towards exotic environments often threatened, with the objective to support the efforts of conservation and the observation of nature.

Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of the local people” (The International Costumers society 1990) Costumers must meet certain criteria Preservation of biodiversity and its functions, through the protection and the restoration of ecosystems The respect of cultural diversity and its ties to the environment The revenues and the profits from costumers must directly benefit the population in the regions concerned The promotion and the encouragement of sustainable development by providing employment to the local and aboriginal populations.

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Educate the travelers in acquiring “corruptibility’s’ Sustainable development is a development model that conciliates ecology, economy and social and establishes a virtuous circle between these three poles: It’s a development that is economically efficient, socially equitable and ecologically sustainable. What are the advantages of adopting costumers ? Economic advantages The idea that we generally have of costumers is a marginal activity intended to finance the protection of environment.

This idea is purely incorrect given that costumers is also a meaner to generate revenue and it has become a driving sector in overall national economies. For example, in Costa Rica, Central America, the reference for costumers, it’s the first source of income. It’s also the case in Madagascar and Kenya in Africa. Currently, costumers is the sector with the fastest growth within tourism. For example in France, the first tourist destination in the world with 70 millions of tourists per year according to the WTFO , has the Forest of Fontainebleau as one of most visited attraction.

The economic success of costumers, contributes to other national development projects, such as health centers or schools ND to the overall improvement of the quality of life of local communities with an important Job creation close to the tourist sites. A primordial aspect is therefore to ensure that the income generated by costumers participates in sustainable development. In conclusion, costumers constitutes a way to Costumers and cultural approach benefit the local populations and the protected areas.

It is part of sustainable development At the cultural level, tourism can be the cause strategy in which natural resources can be of change in local communities. Power released as tourist attractions thou causing actions become unbalanced between tourists any harm to natural areas. However, governing the locals, It either causes cultural ornaments are not able to realize this on their own Sino or conflict between both parties. However- and often associate with Nags that support ere, costumers offers another alternative con- the conservation of the environment to manage kerning this cultural change. And protect natural areas.

Gabon, an incredible potential for costumers Due to their ecological value, protected areas, especially those situated in tropical areas, present a large number of the most important “Egotistic” attractions of the World. Those attractions can be due to particular species of fauna or flora which are endemic, or also to nigh index to species diversity, or unusual geomorphology formation or great historical or cultural events that are unique to a natural context. Central Africa, which possesses the second biggest rain forest of the World, true lungs for the Earth , is a paradise for botanists and zoologists.

It’s therefore an exceptional destination for costumers. We are going to examine what are the characteristics that provide Gabon with its uniqueness in the field of costumers. Paradise for biodiversity Gabon, the Last Eden” National Geographic 2007 Flora Gabon is covered by more than 80% of the equatorial forest and holds an extremely rich fauna and vegetation. It’s one of the rare countries in the world where nature has remained close to its state of origin in spite of forest exploitation and commercial hunt. Gabon appears as a treasure for environment because of the patrimony inside the forests.

Animal species are numerous and varied and over 20% of the plant species are found nowhere else on earth. Besides, the country benefits from the lowest population density in Africa, allowing to preserve the authenticity and the perversity of its ecological wealth. We are going to explore the incredible biodiversity of Gabon Gabon is among the rare tropical countries where the pressure of the forest is relatively low. Since the creation of the “Harrier National” in 1983, more than 15000 species have been collected, more than 19000 have been described. Among them approximately 19% have been categorized as endemic.

More generally, Gabon is a place where multiple varieties of habitats coexist, such as : 0 primary forest Swamp forests Littoral forests Mangrove vegetation Savannah Revering forests Gabon is situated in the most species-rich zone per unit surface in Tropical Africa. Fauna Sawbones fauna is one of the most diversified and richest in Africa with more than 150 mammal species. Here is an overview: There is the largest population of untouched elephants known in Africa (Lodgment African cyclists) with more than 80000 individuals, half of it are in the Nibble region.

Gabon is an important sanctuary for primates with 19 species, including gorillas and chimpanzees. We also find among the mammal, many protected species such as buffaloes, panthers, hippopotamus, manatees, bush pigs etc.. The fauna also remains diversified with more than 600 species of birds. The inventory of terrestrial reptiles records 65 species, including crocodiles, turtles, monitor lizards and snakes. The leatherback turtles, an endangered species realizes her reproduction in Gabon Finally, several species of fish are known in Gabon. Called the country of the giant fish with barracudas, big Jacks, red carps, sharks, whales etc.. It constitutes an incredible potential for fishing. Cultural wealth Diverse ethnically heritage Gibbon’s first inhabitants were the pigmy population, They are know for their hunting, rest gathering habits as well as their heights (adults have an average height of 1 centimeters) There is insufficient information about Gibbon’s population until the 13th century when the pygmies started being decimated and replaced with the arrival of Bantu tribes.

Among the 40 Bantu tribes in Gabon, the major ethnic groups are the Fangs, Ashier. Emblem and Joanne. Only a small percentage of Sawbones live in the cities, the rest of the population is concentrated in the costal zones and the villages along the rivers. There is no major conflict between the different ethnic groups in Gabon, We observe an important umber of interesting marriages , Although there are many languages, only French remains the official language, the language of quotidian communication, The large majority of the population is Christian, spread between Catholics and Protestants.

Besides there are animistic religions such as bit, the most The Sawbones people are proud of the prosperity of their country and are very spiritual. Each ethnic group has ceremonies for births, deaths, initiations Tribal art : mask from the pun tribe Gabon has one of the largest collection of masks found in the continent Many environmental Nags are present in Gabon Environmental Non-governmental organizations play an important role in the development and management of costumers in Gabon. We count approximately 15 national Nags that intervene in the field of environment such as EDEN, Brain forest and Croissants seine environment.

There are also International Nags involved in conservation . The most important in regards of projects are World Wide Fund (WFM) and the Wildlife Conservation Society ,both present in Gabon since 1985 . The Coffee project is invested in the durable management of natural resources in Central Africa. Its an example of a successful cooperation with the countries of Central Africa to ensure the sustainability of protected areas and to guarantee a future for the people living in tropical areas. What is the role of environmental Nags in Gabon?

Nags serve as educators and as an important source of information and technical expertise in the conservation field. They associate with the administrators of protected areas and with the local community, often rejected of the tourism industry , in order to establish a solid egotistic program. The role of Nags in the costumers domain is stop the degradation of the natural environment of Gabon and build a utter where the Sawbones will live in harmony WI TN the nature. To realize t objective, they focus on two areas of activity.

Biodiversity Footprint We are going to focus on the example of the involvement of WFM in the Manlike Forest. Biodiversity Ensure that the wildlife remains “safe” and dynamic for future generations. They focus strategically on the conservation of threatened areas and endangered species that are particularly for the conservation of Gibbon’s rich biodiversity. For example, WFM considers the Nibble forest as key area for the animals found there given the impact of the human activity that exists there.

The Nibble national park and the surrounding forests are considered among the most intact in Africa. A WFM educator and his students in the Nibble forest close to the Vivian river The second focus, is to reduce the negative impacts of human activity , our ecologic footprint . Nags make sure that the natural resources essential to live, such as water and air, are managed in a sustainable and equitable manner. For example, WFM suggests some solutions to the problems associated with mining activities and poaching encountered in the Nibble .

WFM worked with the government and the private sector to reduce he effects of the opening of the iron mine of Belling exploited by a Chinese mining company. Gabon is listed as one of the most prosperous countries in Sub-Sahara Africa with the highest HID and 3rd highest GAP per capita in the region. When we record the economic performance of Gabon, we notice that the revenues of oil production have maintained the economy for the past decades after oil replaced forestry as a driving factor of growth, right after the first oil boom of 1973. Therefore, the dependence on non-renewable resources is evident in Gabon.

On the other hand, we also note that poverty is strongly present in the country with a large part of the population living in precarious conditions and a high income inequality present since independence. We get to the conclusion that Gabon is a typical example of the resource curse with the inclusive nature of oil extraction and the mismanagement of revenues it often leads to. Only diversification of the economy to other sectors can help reach higher economic performance , ensure a sustainable development and a better future for the population .

Not every Sawbones benefits from the oil revenues: Approximately the 20% wealthiest of Gabon receive t the income. There is a large gap between Sawbones elite which enjoys a luxurious lifestyle and the significant proportion of the population which still lives with less than 2 dollars a day and doesn’t have access to adequate lighting and potable water despite the massive oil revenue. The fact that the majority of the Sawbones population is hurt by the oil exports instead of benefiting from it is due to Gabon is the third larger producer and exporter of the resource curse paradox .

Indeed, resource rich crude oil in Sub-Sahara Africa countries tend to encounter stagnant growth and The oil sector has accounted for 78% of the exports, corruption is often a consequence of the inclusive 38% of the GAP and 45% of government’s revenues trait of oil extraction because oil money tends to in 2010. Corrupt politicians who end up putting their interests first rather than thinking of ways to invest in their country’s long term prosperity. Because the oil money goes directly to the government revenues, governments are not dependent on tax income and therefore are not constrained to do what the citizens want.

An example to describe this phenomenon is the degree of corruption that exists in Gabon. Bongo System ” Omar Bongo Indaba, president of Gabon from 1967 after the death of Gibbon’s first president Leon Mba, and held the power for 41 years until his death in 2009. He conserved his regime for so long by maintaining prosperity and peace in Gabon but also by cultivating the support of his surrounding “elite” to whom he spread the oil wealth . The elite is particularly members of his clan, government and the PEG, unique Sawbones political party.

French Journalists have recently made a documentary about “Ill acquired goods”, denouncing the numerous bank accounts, uxorious residences and car the past president owned all over the world in contrast with the miserable situation of many Sawbones. We could continue to describe the level of corruption that massive oil revenues have created in Gabon but the essential idea to remember here is that oil production necessitates expertise and savoir-fairer so not everyone can participate in this activity, therefore it doesn’t create employment .

Also the high revenues generated from it encourages a system of corruption that only benefits a certain elite who also happens to hold the power in the country. The stakes of power become very high and the well-being of the population is not a priority anymore. Finally, others sectors of the economy are neglected because oil money becomes sufficient in government revenues and doesn’t create incentives to develop other economic activities.

Economists call this phenomenon the Dutch disease and define it as the decline/non-existence of the manufacturing sector associated with the discovery of an enriching natural resource. In conclusion, in Gabon, although the revenues generated from oil extraction helps raising the GAP, it doesn’t benefit the population because it has not social betterment ND doesn’t Bennett t the economy because it doesn’t encourage gar A residential neighborhood and a popular neighborhood in Libreville, the capital city How can costumers improve the situation in Gabon?

The oil deposits in Gabon are expected to be exhausted. Since oil revenues represent a considerable part of Gibbon’s GAP, it is urgent that other alternatives are taken, preferably one that is sustainable and won’t “run out ” after a certain amount of time. We’ve established that costumers is an activity that fits in a sustainable development logic so it is socially equitable while being economically efficient. It creates employment as tourism in general requires a development of the service sector .

Indeed costumers activities needs tour agencies and guide services, lodges and private reserves as well as such satellite activities as crafts industries and transportation and food services. It can even get the local populations living around the protected areas to be involved and directly benefit from the welfare it creates. More generally, tourists come with money to spend and that money creates Jobs and incomes to households. Because Gabon already has a potential for costumers , it should exploit its potential o overcome the resource curse.

To keep intact its natural resources, , Gabon has started very early to initiate both at national and international level, actions for their conservation In the ass, Gabon has put under its protection the Massif Forrester of Monday and subsequently other sites such as the Sabina arboretum rich in various plant and animal species. This commitment is further manifested between the ass and the ass with the creation of several research institutes. For example, Institute for Research in Tropical Ecology (RET) and Institute of Pharmacy and Traditional Medicine (EPHEMERA).

The Project of the 13 National parks Aware of global issues in 1972 in Stockholm, and with a still very unique and virtually untouched environment, the President of the Republic, His Excellency El Had] Omar Bongo Indaba, has decided to continue on a large scale, in the year 2000, the census work of Sawbones ecosystems. With the support of Sawbones scientists at the National Center for Scientific and Technological Research and Nags such as WFM and WAS, an ecosystem mapping was carried out throughout the country. In 2000,Mike Fay, an American of WAS, achieved with the support of National

Geographic, a very difficult raid 440 days, 14 months in the rainforest’s: the Monstrance. Hundreds of kilometers on foot from northern Congo to the Atlantic beach Gabon, without ever leaving the forest, crossing some of the most pristine and wild areas of the planet. With the results of the census, and inspired by the great adventure of Mike Fay, and stunning images of National Geographic photographer Nick Nichols, President Omar Bongo Indaba decided to change the course of the management of natural resources in Gabon .