The factors affecting plant yield: light level Abstract The factors affecting Zee Mays, maize (CO) and Pious sati, or pea (CO) plant yield and growth patterns placed under shade and full sunlight were investigated. 20 platelets placed into four vermiculite compost pots (5 from each planet) and submitted to fertilizer or no fertilizer. And after 4 weeks the results showed that maize grown in light with no fertilizer had a higher relative growth rate and root to shoot ratio indicating the allocation favored root development.
Meanwhile pea with fertilizer and no light had a higher growth rate and shoot was more allocated since his CO plants were long. Introduction All organisms sense and interact with their environment. This is particularly true of plants. Plant survival and growth is critically influenced by biotic factors including water, wind, and light. But most importantly (in our experiment) light as it physical alters temperature which directly affects photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration – loss of water and absorption of water and nutrients.
The rate of these processes increases with an increase in temperature responses is different with different crops. The extent of growth and yield responses of plants to elevated CO depends on the photosynthetic pathway. Crops with CO photosynthesis will respond markedly to increasing CO concentrations. Common CO crops are small grain cereals (wheat, rice, barley, oat, and rye); grain legumes or pulses (soybean, peanut, various beards and peas); root and tuber crops (potato, cassava, sweet potato, sugar beet, yams); most oil, fruit, nut, vegetable, and crops; and temperate-zone (cool-climate) forage and grassland species. Zionist et al,. 1981) In contrast, plants with CO photosynthesis ill respond little to rising atmospheric CO because a mechanism to increase the concentration of CO in leaves causes CO saturation of photosynthesis at current ambient concentrations. Common CO crops are maize (corn), sugarcane, sorghum, millet, and many tropical and subtropical zone (warm-climate) grass species (Reunion et al,. 2010). The CO photosynthetic carbon cycle is an elaborated addition to the CO photosynthetic pathway. It evolved as an adaptation to high light intensities, high temperatures, and dryness.
Therefore, CO plants dominate grassland floras and mommas production in the warmer climates of the tropical and subtropical regions. In all plants CO is fixed by the enzyme Rubrics. It catalysts the carbonization of rebellious-I ,5-phosphate, leading to two molecules of 3-phosphorescently. Instead of CO, Rubrics can also add oxygen to rebellious-I ,5-phosphate, resulting in one molecule each of 3-phosphorescently and 2-phosphorescently. Phosphorescently has no known metabolic purpose and in higher concentrations it is toxic for the plant. Bingham, 1984) It therefore has to be processed in a metabolic pathway called photoengraving. Photoengraving is not only energy demanding, but furthermore leads to a net loss of CO. Thus the efficiency of photosynthesis can be decreased by 40% under unfavorable conditions including high temperatures and dryness The intolerable oxygenate reaction to Rubrics can be explained as a relic to the evolutionary history of this enzyme, which evolved more than 3 billion years ago when atmospheric CO concentrations were high and oxygen concentrations low.
Apparently, later on, it was impossible to alter the enzyme’s properties or to exchange Rubrics by another carboxylic. Nevertheless, plants developed different ways to cope with this problem. Perhaps the most successful solution was CO photosynthesis. (Run-on et al,. 2010) Material and methods A trays of pea and maize seedlings (2 trays of each), 7 days old, grown in coarse vermiculite was issued. To experiment the comparison between treatments species, or within species under different growing regimes. Standard growing conditions in the growth room were ?ICC daytime/?19 co night, in a 16-h photodiode.
Results and Discussion Figure 1: root and shoot length (CM) of Zee Mays, maize and Pious sati, pea grown n shade and full solar radiation over 4 weeks. (n=5) According figure 1, the maize in treatment 2 which represent platelets grown in sunlight with no fertilizer has the highest allocation in root, shoot and leaves. Relative to all other maize in other treatments, but the error bars shows that this treatment for maize also has among the highest standard deviation, which meaner there is a huge difference between the sample mean, low and highest value.
Maize in treatment 1 (had both sunlight and fertilizer), 3 (fertilizer only/ no sunlight) and 4 (no sunlight/ no fertilizer) had more or sees similar allocations in their source and sinks (leaves, shoots and roots). The pea had the lowest allocation of the trio leaves, roots and shoot in treatment 1 (where both sunlight and fertilizer were present) relative to other pea in other treatments. And the pea in treatment 3 (fertilizer and no light) and 4 which had no light and no fertilizer, but allocations were distributed differently.
Treatment 3 had negative mean for shoot which mean the shoot did not increase after treatment thus the final was less than the initial shoot length and there was no leave change ( in number) and the tots had the highest mean in this treatment. This meaner that pea platelets in this treatment chose to allocate more on roots than for shoot and leaves. Treatment 4 on the other hand had positive allocation mean for shoot and roots and non for leaves. The roots were again allocated more than the shoots.
Table 1: root and shoot relative growth rate of Zee Mays, maize and Pious sati, pea grown in shade and full solar radiation over 4 weeks. (n=5) Sample Treatment N Relative growth rate Roots shoots Maize Shade / fertilizer 5 0. 0718 0. 0936 Shade / no fertilizer 0. 052 0. 086 Light / no fertilizer Pea Shade fertilizer Shade no fertilizer Light fertilizer Light no fertilizer 0. 1280. 154 5 0. 0231 0. 114 0. 0129 0. 146 5 -0. 033 0. 0495 -0. 032 0. 00681 Figure 2: root and shoot relative growth rate of Zee Mays, maize and Pious sati, pea grown in shade and full solar radiation over 4 weeks. N=5) Using shoot and root lengths to measure relative growth of our platelets after treatment. Treatment 2 (no fertilizer and in sunlight) for maize has the highest root and shoot relative growth rates. Meanwhile pea had it highest RIG in treatment 3 and 4 (3=fertilizer and no sunlight/ 4= no fret and sunlight). This tells us that the maize allocated more or less evenly in both shoot and root hence the platelets were tall and fibrous in roots. But the pea allocated more in 3 / 4 for shoots , so the root: shoot ratio was not even thus the platelets were tall and moderately rooted.
We could get or measure the actual biomass, due to the fact that we were given a small number of seeds ( n =5) so since biomass uses dry weight it will sacrificing 3 of 5 seeds for each treatment and specie size or pea. Which will leave us with 2 seeds to experiment on which will not be valid to experiment on. Since in experiment science we require variability and randomness which we would not get from two seeds. Plants grown in full light suffer mostly from excess light which leads to limited carbon dioxide, since water and co share the same route in and out the plant which is the stomata.
When there is too much light the plant transpires via evaporative cooling and loses water thus to overcome this lose they close their stomata which limited not only the water but also the co. Two features of the CO cycle in CO plants overcome the deleterious effects of higher temperature on photosynthesis that were noted earlier. First, the affinity of PEP carboxylic for its substrate, HCI, is sufficiently high that the enzyme is saturated by HCI in equilibrium with air levels of co. Furthermore, because the substrate is HCI and oxygen is not a competitor in the reaction.