Assembling operas adaptations Less total production cost – Koruna Jumble kook penumbral less material movement – koruna prearrange banana Ease of Navigation * A fixed position layout enables website visitors make their way easily through the website; because the navigation bar is fixed in place, it is always visible. The navigation options are readily apparent, allowing visitors to move on with scrolling as soon as the mood strikes.

Fixed position navigation is particularly useful if your site as many long pages with a great deal of text and imagery; it helps users move to another page without losing their interest or creating confusion. Branding * When some of your page elements are always visible, it strengthens the branding of your website. In a non-flexed layout, the header and navigation scroll up and out of sight; if you have text-only pages, branding elements have the tendency to get lost, which severs the immediate connection with the company.

With a fixed layout, your brand identity elements are consistent. It gives you control over the user experience ND reinforces the strength of your brand. When a user is able to see the imagery, colors and photo style that are consistent across your brand materials, it helps them create connections when they see the brand represented elsewhere. Browser Visibility * Because a fixed position element is not a part of the rest of the document flow, it is always visible in the browser, no matter what the size of the window.

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Even when a user resizes the window to cover only a portion of the screen, the navigation will be visible. Because your readers use computers and devices that have a range of screen sizes, the constant visibility works to your advantage. A fixed layout creates consistency across computers. Coding * When you use a fixed position layout, it helps streamline coding updates down the line. Because it is not necessary to adjust the position and size of the stationary elements, it is easier for a non-technical person to make changes.

If you are using the same fixed elements across the site, you need only to change the design or layout once instead of altering it for each page. For businesses that do not have a full-time web staff, reduced coding saves money and reduces confusion. DISADVANTAGES Scheduling * A factory using a fixed-position layout has to carefully plan the schedule for workers to each have the necessary time allotted to work on the specific phase of the manufacturing process. If one worker is not available or is not working to his capacity, this can slow down all the other phases to the process.

The product could exceed its development deadline, and the factory can lose money in overhead costs. Equipment Costs * Since the product stays in one place, the equipment and tools needed for the product must be able to move. Mobile equipment allows for workers to position homeless in the necessary places. Yet movable equipment costs more and has higher maintenance and repair fees than stationary equipment. Ordered Materials * Materials and equipment must arrive at the time specified for use, which can be a disadvantage.

In other layout designs, materials and equipment can be stocked and placed in a designated work station to await the next phase of the manufacturing process. When materials and equipment have to travel to the product, only a certain number of items can take up room. Because excess materials take time to be moved room the area, it can cut into workers’ time on the product. Work Space * Depending on the number of workers needed during certain phases of the manufacturing, work space can become limited.

The workers must try not to bump into each other while maneuvering equipment about, especially if the product is relatively small. This can also create a tense working environment with workers attempting to give space to others, causing them to slow down in the process. Advantages of process layouts include: * Flexibility. The firm has the ability to handle a variety of processing requirements. Cost. Sometimes, the general-purpose equipment utilized may be less costly to purchase and less costly and easier to maintain than specialized equipment. * Motivation.

Employees in this type of layout will probably be able to perform a variety of tasks on multiple machines, as opposed to the boredom of performing a repetitive task on an assembly line. A process layout also allows the employer to use some type of individual incentive system. * System protection. Since there are multiple machines available, process layouts are not particularly vulnerable to equipment failures. Disadvantages of process layouts include: * Utilization. Equipment utilization rates in process layout are frequently very low, because machine usage is dependent upon a variety of output requirements. Cost. If batch processing is used, in-process inventory costs could be high. Lower volume meaner higher per-unit costs. More specialized attention is necessary for both products and customers. Setups are more frequent, hence higher setup costs. Material handling is slower and more inefficient. The span of supervision is small due to Job complexities (routing, setups, etc. , so supervisory costs are higher. Additionally, in this type of layout accounting, inventory control, and purchasing usually are highly involved. * Confusion.

Constantly changing schedules and routings make Juggling process requirements more difficult. Advantages of product layouts include: * Output. Product layouts can generate a large volume of products in a short time. * Cost. Unit cost is low as a result of the high volume. Labor specialization results in reduced training time and cost. A wider span of supervision also reduces labor costs. Accounting, purchasing, and inventory control are routine. Because routing is fixed, less attention is required. * Utilization. There is a high degree to labor and equipment utilization.

Disadvantages of product layouts include: * Motivation. The system’s inherent division of labor can result in dull, repetitive jobs that can prove to be quite stressful. Also, assembly-line layouts make it very hard to administer individual incentive plans. * Flexibility. Product layouts are inflexible and cannot easily respond to required system changes?especially changes in product or process design. * System protection. The system is at risk from equipment breakdown, absenteeism, and downtime due to preventive maintenance.

Fixed-position layout A fixed-position layout is appropriate for a product that is too large or too heavy to move. For example, battleships are not produced on an assembly line. For services, other reasons may dictate the fixed position (e. G. , a hospital operating room where doctors, nurses, and medical equipment are brought to the patient). Other fixed- position layout examples include construction (e. G. , buildings, dams, and electric or nuclear power plants), shipbuilding, aircraft, aerospace, farming, drilling for oil, home pair, and automated car washes.

In order to make this work, required resources must be portable so that they can be taken to the Job for “on the spot” performance. Due to the nature of the product, the user has little choice in the use of a fixed- position layout. Disadvantages include: * Space. For many fixed-position layouts, the work area may be crowded so that little storage space is available. This also can cause material handling problems. * Administration. Oftentimes, the administrative burden is higher for fixed-position layouts. The span of control can be narrow, and coordination difficult.