Department of Science and Technology showed (Ambulates, 2010). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 1. Billion adults, 20 and older, were overweight in 2008. Of these, over 200 million men and nearly 300 million women were obese. Studies showed that 65% of the world’s population live in countries where overweight and obesity kills more people than underweight (World Health Organization, 2012). Obesity is one of the greatest banes of our technology centered lives. This problem is evident not only in adults, but also in kids who are spending more time in front of the computer, television or video-game console instead of playing games outside.
Since today’s busy families have fewer free moments to prepare nutritious, home-cooked meals, the rapid increase of fast food Haines in the country should not come off as surprising. The modern person, though, has started to become aware of this problem. On top of image issues, obesity also poses a number of health-related problems which cannot be taken lightly. The increasing number of weight loss pills, herbal dietary supplements or teas and the fact that Samba has become extremely popular in Zebu, is proof of that (Sun. Star Zebu Newspaper, 2012).
These have not yet been completely effective in eliminating the problem, though. Obesity has definitely become a growing problem, but a lot of anti-obesity educations, with fen-peen as the best example, have proven to have very damaging side-effects like lung hypertension and heart valve condition (Fen Peen, 2010). Royalist is also associated with a number of unpleasant intestinal side effects such as loose stools or an urgent need to go to the bathroom and the inability to control bowel movements. It is generally only prescribed as a last resort for weight loss (WebMD, 2013).
The researchers have decided to Join in developing ways to eliminate obesity by studying the weight loss potential of Snow Pea pods extract. This, if proven effective, could be a natural way of treating obesity. Snow peas are popularly known as “chicory” or “sisters” in the Philippines. They are the most common type of peas found in the country. Peas are low in calories and are good source of fiber, vitamin C, iron, potassium and magnesium (Department of Primary Industries, November 2009). According to a chart provided by the George Maternal Foundation, a cup of green peas contains 30. 3% fiber and 14. 8% protein.
Few foods provide us with such substantial amounts of protein and fiber as peas. Dietary fiber, which is found in snow peas, is undoubtedly one of the most talked about nutrients for health promotion and disease prevention (The George Maternal Foundation, Dietary fibers promote beneficial physiological detects including location, bal cholesterol attenuation and blood glucose attenuation or a combination of the three effects. (American Association of Cereal Chemists, 2001). Diets higher in protein and moderate in scars are often thought by experts to reduce blood fats. It also helps maintain lean tissue while burning fat for fuel.
And this happens without dieters being sidetracked with constant hunger. Researchers have yet to figure out how protein works to reduce appetite, but it is speculated that it may be because protein causes the brain to receive lower levels of appetite-stimulating hormones (WebMD, 2012). With these information, the researchers hope that snow peas would prove to have significant anti-obesity effects. Objectives of the Study The purpose of the study is to find out the effectiveness of Snow peas Pious stadium vary. Saccharin’s pod extract as an anti-obesity agent on male albino mice. The study specifically aims to: 1 . Determine the weight loss or weight gained of each mouse and the difference in he weight of each mouse from day 31 to day 45. 2. Determine the percent anti- obesity activity of the test plant extract based on weight loss. 3. Determine the number of times each mouse stands or paws during the five minute locomotors test. 4. Monitor the quality of fecal activity of each mouse to test the laxative property of Snow peas and check for the presence of fats and oils in the feces through spot test. 5. Determine the constituents present in snow peas pod extract using test tube reaction method.
Significance of the Study If proven effective, the research study can serve as one of the basis for future searches, since not much anti-obesity agents were studied by the students of the Department of Pharmacy of the University of San Carols, Zebu City. The study would be a good step in the isolation and formulation of pharmaceutical products using Philippines’ rich nature, since it considers the potential therapeutic importance of a plant available in the Philippines. The study would promote the planting of Snow peas in the Philippines. Peas are one of the easiest of all vegetables to propagate and grow, giving rather rapid gratification.
They will grow satisfactorily in most garden soils. Snow peas are one of the most satisfying vegetables to grow even in small spaces and are ideal as a plant for balconies and courtyards as they could and should be harvested every couple of days. As well as the pods you can also harvest the tender young shoots for salads and stir fried meals. They can be grown just as well in a pot as they can in the ground Just as long as they have a support to climb on to. The study would help minimize, if not eliminate, the problems concerning obesity and excessive fat intake from our diets.
This will be made possible by encouraging people to include snow peas in their daily diet. Being overweight or obese puts a person at risk for many health problems. The more body fat a person has and the more a person weighs, the more likely for the person to develop diseases such as coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, gallstones, breathing problems, and CE retain cancers. Witt the help to modern technology, the study can help improve the quality of life of many people. The study will be beneficial not only to the Filipinos, but also to people outside the country.
It will encourage people to eat vegetables, which contain a lot of nutrients. Snow peas have important role inside human nutrients. This plant contains protein, energy, fiber, vitamins and minerals which enhance metabolism. They provide a high dose of pectin, a soluble fiber that makes you feel full which may reduce your appetite. Also, it lowers OLD cholesterol reducing the risk of heart disease, regulates blood sugar which may reduce the onset risk or symptoms of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, and may reduce the risk of collateral cancer, and help manage diarrhea.
They provide a good dose of thiamine, also known as vitamin 81, vitamin hat plays a role in energy metabolism, helps maintain normal digestion, appetite, and proper nerve function. Protein of snow peas has good source of amino acid. The study also helps discover the incredible weight loss benefits of Snow peas and how much a person should eat to get maximum benefit from these peas. This research can promote awareness for everyone to pay attention to their lifestyle and food choice. Scope and Delimitation The research study will only focus on the potential anti-obesity property of Snow pea pod extract on male albino mice.
The Snow peas pod will undergo ethanol extraction then dried in an oven to obtain its extract. The mice will be grouped into eight, with one mouse per group. Groups one to four will be receiving normal diet, while groups five to eight will be receiving high fat diet for a length of one month before testing. Two doses of extracts (500 MGM/ 20 g mouse and 1000 MGM/ 20 g mouse) will be used for the experiment and Royalist will be used for the positive control. Three trials will be conducted for this study. Anti-obesity activity will be determined with the use of body weight, locomotors activity test, and examination of fecal quality.
The extraction process, confirmatory test, and photochemical testing will take place during the first semester of S. Y. 2013-2014 at the Department of Pharmacy, Father Robert Hopper Building, University of San Carols, Taliban Campus, Zebu City, Philippines. Definition of Terms Anti-obesity Agent. Substance with possible weight reducing effect administered to the albino mice. Extract. Substance obtained after ethanol extraction, filtration and evaporation of Snow peas pod. Locomotors Activity Test. The mobility test used to determine the capacity of mouse to stand on its rear paws within five minutes.
Obesity. A condition characterized by the abnormal or excessive accumulation and storage of fat in the body that presents a risk to health. The test animal is said to be obese if its weight increases by twenty percent of its original weight. Spot Test. A test used to detect the presence of lipids. Lipids leave translucent spots (grease spots) on filter paper. Weight Gain. Increase in body weight of test animals which results from the intake of more calories than needed by the body. Weight Loss. Decrease in body weight resulting trot intake to weight-reducing agent, as weighing.
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Peas, Pious stadium determine deed by consistent Peas are a member of the Effaceable or legume family, which includes plants that bear pods enclosing fleshy seeds. There are two main kinds of peas: green and edible-pod. Snow peas (See Plate 1) belong to edible pods. Most edible-pod peas have seeds that are not yet fully developed (Calories, 2011). The legume family (Leguminous) takes its name from the Latin legume, or pod. Thesis a two-valve fruit with seeds attached to the edge of the upper margin.
The payday be straight, coiled, mounded, flattened, winged, woody, flesh, smooth or hairy. When ripe, they may split open along with the margin or sometimes break into seeded segments. Many seeds are pea- or bean-shaped; all have two cotyledons and an embryo, and can often retain the capacity to germinate for many years. Pods of different species can display a number of interesting features (Millet, 2004). Snow Peas Pious stadium vary. Saccharin’s or snow pea is a variety of pea eaten whole in its pod while still unripe.
In French, snow peas are called “mange tout,” which meaner “eat all,” since both the peas and the pods are edible. It is one of the earliest-known cultivated plants, with evidence of having been cultivated in a region that is now along the Thailand-Burma border, 12,000 years ago. Like all legumes, snow peas host beneficial bacteria, rhizome, that fix nitrogen in the soil, which is considered a naturalistic relationship, and are therefore a useful companion plant, especially useful to grow intercepted with green, leafy vegetables that benefit from high nitrogen content in their soil.
The snow peas grow up to three inches long (7. 5 CM) with flat, bright green pods that are pointed at both ends. The peas sprout from a blossom that becomes a green leaflet at the stem-end of pods as the peas mature. The pods also have strings along their edges that are usually removed before cooking. The tendrils the vines produce for climbing are also edible and are often used in fine cuisine (Research, 2010). Plate 1. Habit of Growth of Snow Pea Plant Pious stadium vary. Saccharin’s (Rasa, 2009) ones A: Lead and I F rower (HAD Directory, B Pods (Burped, Snow peas are rich in nutritional value.
They are high in dietary fiber, protein and vitamin C. They are very low in Saturated Fat, Cholesterol and Sodium. They are also a good source of Riboflavin, Vitamin 86, Pentatonic Acid, Magnesium, Phosphorus and Potassium, and a very good source of Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Thiamin, Foliate, Iron and Manganese. (The Tucker Patch, 2012) The texture and sweetness of snow peas are at their best when eaten immediately after harvesting. They will also keep for several days in the refrigerator in a plastic bag or container. Snow peas may also be frozen and do not need to be thawed before being added to a dish.
Fresh snow peas may be eaten raw as a snack or used as a salad ingredient. They also lend themselves nicely o quick blanching, which enhances their crisp texture and vibrant green color. Snow peas may be added to Asian stir-fry dishes, soups, and pasta. They require very little cooking time and should be added toward the end of the cooking process for optimal texture and color (Helter, 2 The extracts trot the seeds to snow peas nave been shown to have antibacterial properties that may help protect infants and children against certain infections from bacteria such as H. Pylori.
Studies also shows that a substance contained in snow peas called glycogen-A has been effective to help overcome one cause of male infertility. Snow peas were proven to increase fertility in some men that are currently considered infertile (Liberating, 2011). Obesity A recent article by Galatea defined obesity as a result of the accumulation of excess fat on the body. It is considered a chronic disease, with many serious long- term consequences on an individual’s health. Along with tobacco use and high blood pressure, it is leading cause of preventable deaths (Galatea, 2012).
Department of Science and Technology Food and Nutrition Research Institute conducted a study last 2008 which showed that there were about 20 out of 100 Filipino adults of both exes who were overweight in 1998. The figures have then increased to 24 and 27 out of 100 in 2003 and 2008, respectively (Ambulates, 2010). Obesity is normally perceived as something adults would suffer. But according to Philip Chug, obesity in children has doubled the past couple of decades and tripled the past 30 years.
Today, among the affluent people around the world, including those in developing nations, obesity afflicts about 20 percent of children aged 6 to 1 1, and more alarmingly, about 10 percent of those aged 2 to 5 are obese. Among those between ages 12 and 19, 18 percent are also obese. The more obese the child, the greater the risk of developing a cluster of health problems and their complications early in life, which includes type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and other cardiovascular diseases. Obesity, in children or in adult, is a significant health danger (Chug, 2012).
Obesity and overweight have many causes, including genetic, metabolic, behavioral and environmental. The rapid increase in prevalence suggests that behavioral and environmental influences predominate, rather than biological changes. Direct associations between obesity and several diseases, including aviates mellitus, hypertension, displacement and shamanic heart disease, are well recognized. Despite this, the relationship between body weight and all-cause mortality is more controversial. A very high degree of obesity (IBM > 35 keg/mm) seems to be linked to higher mortality rates (Mailing and Knobble, 2006).
Despite the rapidly increasing cases of obesity worldwide, weight-loss medications should only be considered as an adjunct for patients who are at substantial medical risk because of their obesity and in whom non-pharmacological treatments have not resulted in sufficient weight loss to improve health or to prevent regain. The safety and efficacy of weight-loss medications beyond two years of use have not been established (Winooski and Winooski, 2002). Health Risks of Obesity (Abram, et al. , 2009) Cancer. Obesity is associated with a higher prevalence of breast, colon, and endometrial cancers.
With breast cancer, risks increase in postmenopausal women with increasing body weight. Women who gain more than Bibb from age 18 to midlife nave double the risk to breast cancer compared Witt women who maintain a stable weight during this period of their life. In addition, obesity apparently increases the risk f breast cancer independent of overall obesity. In women with central obesity, this additional risk factor may be related to an excess of estrogen and a deficiency of sex- hormone-binding globulin to combine with the estrogen. Colon cancer seems to be more common in obese man and women.
In addition, a high IBM may be a risk factor for a higher mortality rate with colon cancer. Endometrial cancer is clearly more common in obese women, with adult weight gain again increasing risk. Cardiovascular Diseases. Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disorders and increased mortality from cardiovascular disease. Studies have confirmed the relationship between obesity and increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in both men and women. In addition, obesity during adolescence is associated with higher rates and greater severity of cardiovascular disease as adults.
Obesity increases risks by aggravating other risks factors such as hypertension, insulin resistance, low HAD cholesterol, and hyperthyroidism’s. In addition, obesity seems to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disorders, and obesity may be more important than IBM as a risk factor for death from cardiovascular disease. The increased mortality rate is seen even with modest excess body weight. Hypertension, dyspepsia, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance are known cardiac risk factors that tend to cluster in obese individuals.
Hypertension often occurs in obese persons and is thought to play a major role in the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and stroke observed in patients with obesity. Metabolic abnormalities that occur with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (e. G. , insulin resistance and the resultant hypersensitiveness) aggravate hypertension and increase cardiovascular risks. The combination of obesity and hypertension is associated with cardiac changes (e. G. , thickening of the ventricular wall, schemas, and increased heart volume) that lead to heart failure more rapidly.
Weight loss of as little as 4. 5 keg (10 lb) can decrease blood pressure and cardiovascular risk in many people with obesity and hypertension. Diabetes Mellitus. Obesity is strongly associated with impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. In addition, obesity during adolescence is associated with high rates of diabetes as adults as well as more severe complications f diabetes at younger ages. Dyspepsia’s. Obesity strongly contributes to abnormal and undesirable changes in lipid metabolism (e. G. Increased triglycerides and OLD cholesterol; decreased HAD cholesterol) that increase risks of cardiovascular disease and other health problems. Gallstones. Obesity apparently increases the risk for developing gallstones by altering production and metabolism of cholesterol and bile. The risk is higher in women, especially those who have had multiple pregnancies or who are taking oral contraceptives. However, rapid weight loss with very low-calorie diets is also associated with gallstones. The reason for this may be that rapid weight loss appears to decrease the gallbladder’s ability to contract bile.
But, it is unclear whether very low-calorie diets directly cause gallstones or whether the amount of weight loss is responsible for the formation of gallstones. Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a group of risk factors and chronic conditions that coco together and greatly increase the risks to diabetes mellitus, serious cardiovascular disease, and death. The syndrome is thought to be highly prevalent in the United States. Major characteristics include many of the health robbers associated with obesity (e. G. Dyspepsia’s, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, central obesity). Osteoarthritis. Society is associated with osteoarthritis of both weight-bearing joints, such as the hip and knee, and non-weight bearing Joints. Extra weight can stress affected bones and Joints, contract muscles that abnormally stabilize Joints, and may alter the metabolism of cartilage, collagen, and bone. In general, obese people develop osteoarthritis of the knees at earlier age and are more likely than non-obese people to require knee replacement surgery.
Sleep pane. Sleep pane commonly occurs in obese persons. A possible explanation is enlargement of soft tissue in the upper airways that leads to collapse of the upper airways with inspiration during sleep. The obstructed breathing leads to pane with hyperemia, HyperCard, and a stress response. Sleep pane is associated with increased risks of hypertension, possible right heart failure, and sudden death. Weight loss leads to improvement in sleep pane. Miscellaneous Effects. Obesity is associated with numerous difficulties in addition to those described above.
These may include Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is being increasingly recognized and which may lead to liver failure Poor wound healing Poor antibody response to hepatitis B vaccine A negative perception of people who are obese that affects their education, socioeconomic, and employment status High costs associated with treatment of the medical conditions caused or aggravated by obesity as well as the costs associated with weight-loss efforts In women, obesity is associated with menstrual irregularities, difficulty in becoming pregnant, and increased complications of pregnancy In men, obesity is associated with infertility Ђ In children and adolescents, obesity increases risk of bone fractures and muscle and Joint pain.
Knee pain is commonly reported, and changes in the knee Joint make movement and exercise more difficult. Ann-obesity Drugs Anti-obesity drugs or weight loss drugs include all pharmacological treatments intended to reduce or control weight. The two main categories of anti-obesity drugs are: (1) Anti-obesity drugs that act on the gastrointestinal system (pancreatic lipase inhibitors) and (2) Anti-obesity drugs that act on the central nervous system mainly to suppress appetite. Royalist is an example of the first kind of anti-obesity drug that inhibits pancreatic and gastric lipase, which reduces dietary fat absorption and in turn leads to weight loss.
Submarine is the example of second kind of anti-obesity drug that promotes a sense of satiety. It is an anorectic or appetite suppressant that reduces the desire to eat. Remonstrant is a recently developed anti-obesity drug. It also acts centrally on the brain and decreases appetite. There are many anti- obesity drugs but some of them have severe or life-threatening side effects. Therefore, they are recommended to be taken only under medical supervision. Prescription weight loss drugs are approved only tort those Witt a B above, or 27 and above if they have other risk factors, such as high blood pressure or diabetes (Pharmaceutical Drug Manufacturers, 2012).
Royalist Royalist (See Figure 2) is (S)-2-formulation-4-methyl-pentatonic acid (S)-l AS)-3-hexed-4-ox-2-external] methyl]-decoded ester. Its empirical formula is C29H53N05, and its molecular weight is 495. 7. It is a single discriminate molecule that contains four choral centers, with a negative optical rotation in ethanol at 529 NM (Genetic, 2010). Figure 1 . Chemical Structure of Royalist Royalist is a white to off-white crystalline powder. Royalist is practically insoluble in water, freely soluble in chloroform and very soluble in methanol and ethanol. Royalist is not capable of ionizing within the physiological pH range (Ruche, 2012). Royalist is used together with a reduced-calorie diet to help a person lose weight and to help keep the lost weight from returning.
It is also used in overweight people who may also have diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or heart disease. This medicine is available both over-the-counter (ETC) and with doctor’s prescription. This product is available in capsule (Kenny, 2012). Royalist works by blocking chemicals (enzymes) such as pancreatic and gastric lipase in the gut which digest fat. Nearly a third of the fat that one ingested is blocked by royalist. The undigested fat is not absorbed into the body, and is passed out with the stools. The normal dose is one capsule – 120 MGM, three times a day with each meal. However, it is not needed to take one if there is no fat in the meal or if one misses a meal (AIMS, 2012).
Royalist can also interfere with the absorption of various medicines and vitamins bind to fat vitamins A, D, E and beta- carotene) and affect the way that they work. Its most notable drug-to-drug interactions happen when it is taken together with a cyclotrons, carbons, emendation, and warring. It is also possible with a contraceptive pill. Therefore, if a person takes royalist he must take a multivitamin supplement at bedtime – a time when he will not be taking royalist – to help ensure adequate vitamin intake. If a person takes the contraceptive pill and have severe diarrhea en should use other met nods to contraception in addition to the pill – to example, condoms. One must tell his doctor or pharmacist about other medicines that they take, before starting on royalist (Kenny, 2012).
The common side effects of royalist includes: bladder pain, diarrhea, fever, general feeling of discomfort or illness, loss of appetite, muscle aches and pains, nasal congestion, nausea, sweating, unusual tiredness or weakness, abdominal or stomach pain or discomfort, back pain, difficulty with moving, gas with leaky bowel movements, inability to hold bowel movement, increases in bowel movements, loss of bowel control, oily bowel movements, and oily spotting of underclothes (Micrometer, 2012). Male Albino Mice Most of the mice used in laboratories are white albino house mice (See Figure 3). The mouse has been used in biomedical research since the early 20th century. Several characteristics have made the mouse an appealing research subject.
These include the mouse’s genetic similarity to humans (at least 80% of DNA in mice is identical to that of humans), small size, short lifespan and reproductive cycle, low maintenance in captivity, and mild manner. For these reasons, house mice constitute the majority of mammals used in research, testing, and education. Over ten million mice are used each year in U. S. Laboratories alone, in tests of new procedures and drugs as well as in research involved in the production of biological products such as vaccines (Animal Liberation Front). The average lifespan of a wild mouse is typically one to two years, while mice kept as pets usually live about three years and have survived up to six years.
Mice reach sexual maturity at between five and six weeks of age and have tremendous reproductive potential. They breed throughout the year and may produce as many as eight litters in a single year, with the average litter consisting of four to seven pups. Animal Liberation Front). [pick] Figure 2. Male Albino Mouse (Cheerleaders, 2013) Mice should be kept in rooms with the temperature set at about 21. 1 co and humidity at 50%. Lights should not be too bright since most white mice are albinos and too much light hurts their eyes. They are diurnal. Their bedding should not be wood shaving since some wood emits toxic fumes to mice. They should have fresh mouse or rat food and water available at all times.
Their bedding should be changed 2 or 3 times a week to prevent the buildup of urea (Florida Atlantic University, 2012). Mice in research facilities are generally fed a polluted rodent diet ad labium. Maintenance diets generally contain 4-5% fat and 14% protein. An adult mouse will consume about 1 5 grams of feed per 100 grams of body weight per day (Subscriber, 2007). The majority of laboratory rodents are albinos, due to a common mutation in Tyrosine gene in all albino laboratory rat strains and in at least some of the albino mouse strains. Tyrosine is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of melanin pigment. The prevalence of albinism among laboratory rodents is because many of