Music and motion pictures, two of the most popular forms of entertainment today, can easily be traced back hundreds of years ago. Yet a relatively newer form of entertainment (and information) has impacted those long-established industries in as little as a few years: the internet. Recorded music, technically speaking, can be traced back to April 9th, 1 860 with “Au Claim De la Lune” by Г?dotard-Lon Scott De Martingale . Though music existed long before this date, It marks the first time music was successfully recorded. Movies” (rather, plays) as well were a long-enjoyed form of entertainment at the mime, and only 28 years later in 1888, “Roundhead Garden Scene” by Louis El Prince was filmed . Though music and movies have obviously come a long way since then, its purpose has remained steady since its inception: to entertain, convey artistic expression, and generate money. Eventually with ways to record and distribute these types of mediums. Hanks to the inventions of the phonograph in 1877 by Thomas Edison (whose “Mary Had a Little Lamb” was long believed to be the first recording ever) and the motion picture camera and simultaneous invention of the motion picture projector in the sass, the true was paved for these forms of entertainment to be distributed to mass audiences . Though the technology used to film movies in that time became quickly outdated, Thomas Edition’s Invention was the major recording format for music for over a hundred years after Its creation.
The music industry technically started in the late sass with the selling of sheet music; that is the papers read by musicians to explain how to play the song. The beginning of the 20th century introduced actual record companies beginning to sell physical music media which dominated sales over sheet music by the end of World War I . Since then, only the types of music and storage mediums have changed (vinyl, cassette, and then compact-disk, though other not-so-popular formats came and went as well).
Record companies made large profits, as giving the least amount of money possible to the recording artists themselves was a common practice (so much in fact that Michael Jackson earning around $2 per album sold was considered a large amount of money ). As profitable as vinyl records and cassettes were to sell, record companies nearly forced the compact-disk format onto the public as it was the hippest of all three to manufacture . Sony (a major record company then and now) had a large hand in developing the compact-disk format in 1979, and released Abs’s “The Visitors” album by 1982.
Three years later and the format already boasted million-selling albums. The general public enjoyed the ability to skip tracks easily, the higher audio quality (though debatable by many vinyl enthusiasts) and the overall compact design when compared to their 12″ vinyl counterparts. The new format was than vinyl records and cassettes, and consumers who wanted a non-degrading medium to enjoy their music on. Movies followed the trends of music, making large profits for studios willing to distribute motion pictures.
Unlike music, however, movies took a while longer to get into the “home buyer” market that the record industry enjoyed for years. Technology didn’t progress quickly enough for movies to be enjoyed privately as music had been able to do. Their profits relied solely on movie ticket sales and in rare instances, merchandising. Luckily for the movie industry this lost market came to an end in the late sass’s when the relatively new home video player, the VS. (video cassette accorder) became the standard, and virtually only method for watching movies when the consumer desired in their home.
While home video players were introduced in the early sass’s, it took several years and price reductions, not to mention the end of Sonny’s rival format, the Bateman, to solidify a widespread home video format consumers adapted to . Sony, a company notorious for creating proprietary media formats in hopes of their format being successful (and subsequently forcing other companies to pay them licensing fees) created the Bateman (“Beta” for short) video aroma in an attempt to beat VS. (the format of tape used in Vicars, an abbreviation for Video Home System) in the home video market.
Sony had the right idea: Bateman had a better picture quality than VS., smaller tapes, and stronger durability. Ultimately however, it is Sonny’s arrogance that solidified Batsman’s future of being synonymous with failure and unsupported technology in comedy and pop culture. Sony decided not to license out the technology of Bateman players, meaning only Sony could produce the players themselves in an attempt for more revenue. C.V. (the Inventor of VS.) on the contrary, decided to license the technology to any company that wanted to manufacture the players.
The result is predictable: C.V. permitting ‘competing” companies to manufacture Vicars resulted in more choices and lower prices for consumers, making VS. the leading format for home movie viewing. Both the music and movie industries now had strong, proven, and popular media formats they could sell to consumers. Rhea music and movie industry stayed fairly steady for a long period thereafter. Music Nas as popular as ever, with multi-platinum selling CDC not being uncommon.
Movie companies enjoyed increased revenue by releasing their films on the VS. format after their theatrical release ran its course, and music companies were able to release (and releases) albums in the more profitable compact-disk format. One newer type of technology was growing rapidly, however. This technology was computers and the internet. Though the internet and computers especially had been around for decades by the mid sass’s, it wasn’t until desktop computers reached a healthy medium of usefulness and attractive pricing that they became more common in the home.
Previously only used for databases, mainframes, and entertaining hardcore technophiles, an onslaught of different technologies coming together at once finally drives in the mid sass’s, turning the computer from a boring, mostly text-based operation, into a fully interactive platform helpful for education or entertainment. Since a CD-ROOM drive was simply using a compact-disk drive for data, the popularity of the compact-disk helped push the computer industry forward. What would normally take over 500 floppy disks (the personal computer’s previously most popular format) could now fit on a single CD- ROOM.
The introduction of Microsoft’s Windows 95 also made the home PC easier and more entertainment-friendly, especially when compared to the previous 3. 1 version. Also at this time, America Online introduced their incredibly then-popular flat-rate monthly internet fee of $19. 99 per month. Accessing the internet was no longer an expensive or boring endeavor. With the influx of the personal computer in people’s homes and the staggering rise of those connecting to the internet, the means to obtain movies and music were inevitably facing change.
This would take some time however, as the typical internet injection in the mid sass’s couldn’t distribute even a single floppy disk in under ten minutes. As expected, technology changed and faster dial-up modems and fiber-optic means of connecting to the internet were introduced. Capable of transferring data anywhere from twice to over a hundred-times faster than the fastest phone-based connection, broadband internet connections quickly became popular due to their increased speed, attractive price, and the freeing up of a telephone line while using the internet.
Broadband internet (DSL, cable, Bios, etc. ) also had the unique ability to hare the connection with every device in the home through the use of a router. Nerveless routers even allowed laptops and other hand-held devices to connect to ultra-fast internet connections without the use of cables. Even with ultra-fast internet connections, accessing movies and music quickly Mould not have been feasible if not for the use of compression. Simply put, compression is the computational method of reducing a file’s size while maintaining TTS original level of quality.
An example of this type of compression is MPH . An extremely popular term used now, MPH is simply a form of compression, taking the original audio file and converting it to MPH for easy distribution and storage. For example, a single 4 minute audio track taken from a compact-disk and placed on a computer is over 40 megabytes in size (around 30 floppy disks). The same song at an Indistinguishable sound quality in comparison is less than 5 megabytes in size. This makes the sharing of music over the internet nearly 10 times quicker than before the creation of the MPH audio compression format.
With no easy way to share these files, and as it is said that necessity is the mother of invention, Anapest was born in 1999. Created by a college student named Shawn Fanning, Anapest was the first popular method for people to share their music collections across the internet . Anapest sparked a media-sharing revolution despite being eventually shut down by court order. Music labels argued it was piracy, nearly only way to become exposed to new kinds of music; severely hindered by repetitive radio stations, many whom were illegally paid by music companies to play particular songs .
Nevertheless, Anapest’s downfall did virtually nothing to stop music file sharing. Other programs soon followed, with record companies and the ARIA Recording Industry Association of America) following closely behind. It was futile however; every time they successfully managed to shut one sharing protocol down, another cropped up. Rather than embracing this new technology and attempting to capitalize on it, the record industry attempted to shut it down in vain. In fact, one attempt to curtail the online sharing of music proved disastrous.
In 2005, Sony, a staunch opponent to online file sharing, used a copy protection method on their music CDC that disabled the ability to play the compact-disks on computers . This exulted in only hurting those who purchased the copy-protected CDC: they couldn’t properly play a music CD they had legally purchased, and those who illegally downloaded the CD on the internet could play it as they pleased. It was as if those No purchased the CDC were reprimanded and those who downloaded it had no playback difficulties.
This is in addition to the fact that it was later determined that En a Sony copy-protected CD was placed in a computer, it secretly installed an anti-piracy program in the user’s computer. Determined illegal as the user did not vive permission to install the program, Sony was forced to discontinue the practice as civil and criminal lawsuits followed. Even worse, Sonny’s anti-piracy program was even found to create a “hole” in the person’s computer, making them vulnerable to viruses and attacks.
Eventually, record companies realized their anti-downloading efforts were time consuming, costly, and ineffective. In April 2008, Blender magazine named the shutting down of Anapest as the #1 biggest record-company screw-up of all time . During the height of the record industry claims that piracy was destroying the USIA business, rap musician Amine’s The Marshall Matters LAP went on to sell 21 million copies . It became clear that music still sells, and it was time to embrace the internet rather than fight it.
In April of 2003, Apple opened up their tunes store, reaching out to the largest MPH player install base: the pod . tunes created a way for users to legally download music and pay for it, all in the convenience of their home for use on a portable audio player. While some music companies were reluctant to sign on, tunes now boasts over 6,000,000 songs, and $4,000,000,000 in sales. Other companies followed suit with websites such as music, Rhapsody, and even Anapest’s return due to the popularity of paying for music on the internet.
The profits were even greater for companies than they were with selling CDC as they no longer had to print or manufacture physical disks, and paying for space in a music store was no longer as necessary as it once was. Though songs downloaded on tunes do have a form of copy-protection embedded in them (something Apple CEO Steve Jobs dislikes but is forced upon by the record companies), it’s much more lenient and doesn’t assume the customer is a thief as Sony once did.
In fact, Amazon recently started a music purchasing website, and much to the praise of music fans it contains no copy protection and no software is needed to make the purchase; Just a not participating in non-protected audio, it’s a welcome start in purchased music becoming as open as possible for users. Large-margin profits and methods of distribution are not the only way the internet has changed the music industry. Bands, comedians and other entertainers that rely on audio sales achieve much greater exposure thanks to the internet.
Comedian Dane Cook cites the popular social networking website Namespace and the ability for IM to spread his comedy act around the internet as the reasons for his immense success (his album was the first comedy album to hit the top 5 Billboard charts in the past 28 years) . Without the exposure from television and radio that popular musicians rely on, artists not signed with a major label can distribute their music Introit the need of major record labels (perhaps this is what the labels were afraid of all along? ). Rhea movie industry has had a similar effect because of the internet, but not in the same way.
The reason being is fairly simple: speed. While a compressed (MPH) music ill can take only seconds to download on a high-speed internet connection, an entire movie is much larger and in turn not feasible for instant viewing or the filling up of a large portion of valuable hard drive space. Due to the generally low prices of DVD movies (especially when compared to the $20+ cost of VS. tapes that offered virtually no advantages from a taped-from-TV copy) and the ease of DVD rentals due to sites such as Nettling and Blockbuster Online, the pirating of movies isn’t nearly as severe as it is with music.
While it does exist, the major problem movie studio’s face in geared to piracy is of movies still currently in theaters (that is, a bootleg copy) . Before the popularity of the internet, bootleg movies were generally confined to the streets of downtown neighborhoods. The internet allows these bootlegs to reach places around the world fairly quickly, hurting the chances of those viewing the bootleg to then purchase a ticket. Numerous methods to thwart bootlegging have recently gone into effect; namely a method where a secret collage of dots is shown non-obtrusively during the movie to detail the film’s origins .
This assists the movie audio in knowing if a particular location is responsible for more than one source of a bootleg. Screener (copies given to the press for review) are also more carefully distributed. Howard Stern mentioned on his radio show that he was given permission to have a screener copy of a film only if a security guard were to stay in his home Nile he viewed it. Though large file sizes and not-fast-enough connections to the internet seem to be hindering the movie industry full-fledged internet based future the way the music Industry is heading, it’s not to say it isn’t getting closer.
Nettling recently began allowing customers to view their rentals right on their website rather than wait for a delivery . ‘ere enjoyable to anyone without means of viewing their computer on a TV), it shows the internet is becoming a strong medium in which the movie industry is turning towards. tunes now even offers full-length movies and TV shows to be watched on their video pod line of players. Again, humbled by long download times, large file sizes, and lower image quality, it’s not exactly taking over DVD sales in the way Amps have taken from their physical formats.