Sharing File sharing started with tapes In the sass’s and Cad’s In the sass’s but file sharing did not gain mainstream attention until Anapest was Invented by Shawn Fanning In 1999. Anapest, the first large scale Illegal file sharing program, was a peer to peer (PEP) program which allows users to trade files from one computer to another through a central program. Once Anapest was released, It Immediately gained “Disappeared popularity.
Anapest was shut down In 2001 after the Recording Industry Association of America (ARIA) sued Anapest and won on the grounds of copyright Infringement (Janssen, Bendable, and Vender Bake 77). Since Anapest was shut down, there have been many programs that have arisen to take its place that do the lob faster and more efficiently such as Limier and Bitterroot (Jones 289). This has caused a major problem in global CD sales; According to criminology doctor Richard lanes, CD sales have dropped from 2. 5 billion sales in 2000 to 1. Billion sales in 2006, this has cost the record industry billions. Although this does not sound good, this information can be taken two ways: first, PEP programs should be done away with completely because they are harming the traditional way the music industry distributes music. Another way to look at this information is that technology is changing and in order to keep up, both record labels and artists need to embrace advances in technology to make changes to create a new, more profitable music industry.
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Although file sharing has been attacked in the recent past, there is much solid evidence that file sharing should not be done away with completely. There are many ways that PEP can be beneficial, we should not be so quick to criticize file haring, but instead, look at the benefits of file sharing and how it can be used to aid music distribution. MPH, short for MPEG-I Audio Layer-3, was invented In 1987 as a way to make high quality copies of music files that use considerably less space than traditional Cad’s and Is now the most used music file type.
Where a song on a CD would take up 30-40 MBA, a MPH of the same son would only take 3 MBA. The MPH file Is used by file sharing orgasm because it is able to be copied quickly and efficiently Oneness, Bendable, and Vender Bake 90). There are several different types of PEP file sharing software; en type Is a File Transfer Protocol (FTP). An FTP Is a central server where users can upload their own files and the location of the files are stored so others can download the file.
The problem with this type of software Is If the central server Is unavailable for some reason, then no one Is able to download any files because the locations are gone (Jones 289). Another type of PEP software is the Neutral system which is more decentralized than the traditional FTP. When the Neutral system is installed, the program looks for other computers (about 6) that are also running the program. When a search is either be downloaded or the request can forwarded to other computers using the program. Some applications that use this system include Limier, Breathers, Poisoned, and Acquisitions.
One of the newest, most popular file sharing programs is torrent. Bitterroot is similar to the Neutral system but it is superior in some Nays; first of all, Bitterroot allows the user to download large amounts of files in a relatively short period of time. The software breaks down the file in small chunks and the users does not have to download the file in order. It rewards those who upload ore and also allows others to start downloading parts of the file that are already downloaded by one user even if the whole file is not yet downloaded.
This makes torrent a very fast and efficient way of transferring files Cones 290). Although illegal file sharing has hurt record companies, there are very good reasons why PEP should not be struck down completely. Oneness, Bendable, and Vender Bake 90). First of all, when record labels attack PEP programs, it discourages Inventors from making new developments because there is a fear of getting in trouble with one’s invention (Marks 23). In 1984, Sony produced the first VS. which allowed the user to record TV shows.
Universal Studios saw this as copyright and sued Sony for copyright infringement arguing that Sony was equipping customers to infringe on copyright laws (Landau 155). In the end, in a mere 5-4 ruling, the court ruled that Sony should not be responsible for how the end user uses the device. If the court would have ruled the VS. illegal in the Sony vs.. Universal City Studios case, then we would not have some of the technological developments we have today such as DVD’s, the pod, or Tivoli because they are all able to aid in copyright infringement 1156).
As Paul Marks says in his article, Media Empires Gang Up on Internet File Sharers, “If you want a vibrant technology sector, you let innovators invent without forcing them to beg permission from media moguls (Marks 23). ” PEP programs have many uses other than those used illegally. PEP is a global information storage and trading system; it is not centrally controlled so there cannot be one point of failure; it is fast, safe, and secure (“In Praise of PEP” 35). PEP connects computers to each other in order to share resources efficiently.
PEP offers a fast, efficient way for the user to share personal pictures, audio files, videos, and comments (Marks, 23). There are many companies including the Army, Keep, and many more who use PEP programs to increase productivity. The Army is using this technology to improve communication on the battlefield by having radios connect to each other; Keep uses PEP to connect computers together to transfer calls; Groove Networks uses PEP to create shared workspaces so employees can work together online PEP has these uses and many other companies are beginning to use this new, innovative technology (“In Praise of PEP” 36).
There are many factors that could be to blame when it comes to file sharing. One main reason is the high availability and easiness of illegal file sharing. It has been proven that those who download most are young college students. One reason why illegal downloading is such a problem is because in the minds of some if it is on the internet and it is easy to obtain, then it is free. There is no physical property that is being changed hands and more than one person can posses the file at once so it is not stealing (Landau 150).
Another reason for the increase in file sharing is the recent commit file sharing, the price of Cad’s rose over 7 percent between 1999 and 2001 lone Oneness Bendable, and Vender Bake 80). Copyright laws were originally created “to provide incentive for authors to create and to provide the public with as much public product as possible (Landau 150). ” We have not been able to gain the full benefits of technology mostly because copyright laws are old and outdated (Welsh 1526). Copyright laws are too complex and ambiguous and therefore they increase costs by supporting an outdated music industry (1527).
With current copyright laws, there are actually two parts to a song: the physical music composition, which is the combination of notes and lyrics, and the mound recording, which is the recorded version including any performances (Keenan 354). Terry McBride, CEO of the record label, Network Music Group, offered to pay the legal bills for a Texas father who was being sued by the ARIA for file sharing. McBride says “the Aria’s litigation policy has no upside. It is destroying our ability to monotone the PEP market by chasing music fans farther and farther underground. He has the goal to stop all litigation against music fans for 4 basic reason: first, because of the rapid growth of the internet and broadband penetration, current litigation are causing music fans to use technologies that are not traceable, therefore “we are not deterring file sharing, we are deterring our chances of monitoring it. ” Second, we have been trading music ever since the ass’s when one would create a mix tape. Third, these file sharers are exposing new bands and making them more popular with little to no mainstream support.
Lastly, CD sales are not down because of file sharing but because there is more competition from other formats, digital distribution allows the consumer to only purchase certain songs they like, and current music retailers now only carry top hits (McBride 4). The music industry has made several changes away from the traditional way of selling music. With the emergence of the internet and PEP downloading sites, hysterical music stores are becoming outdated and obsolete. The music industry has moved away from this traditional ways of selling physical Cad’s in music stores to using online distribution sites such as tunes.
The music industry did not have very much success with online music distribution until Apple invented tunes in 2003. Downloaded tracks rose from 160 million units in 2004 to 795 million units in 2006. Online music sales meet the desires of some costumers to only buy single songs rather than whole Cad’s. After Legal online music services started, revenue for the record industry rose from $397 million in 2004 to $2 billion in 2006 Oneness, Bendable, and Vender Bake 92). Even with the music industry beginning to use alternative methods of distribution, they are still falling behind.
Global record sales have been on a constant decline ever since Anapest has invented in 1999 (80). In order to maintain profits, artists and the music industry need to make a change. According to James Welsh, the executive article editor of the Emory Law Journal, the current system is broken and there are two basic reasons why: first, the major record labels have a monopoly; 85% of the market is controlled by the few major record labels and this is at a cost to the artists. Secondly, the record industry is “too Inflexible and conservative with regards to technology.
It neither exploits technology (Welsh 1521). ” Welsh claims that instead of illegal file sharing being the culprit for the decline in record sales, studies show that the blame should be put on the shoulders of the outdated music industry. In his article, Pay What You Like – No, Really: Why Copyright Laws Should Make Digital Music Free for Noncommercial Use, James Welsh says “the industry is using outdated methods in court rather than updating them. Neither consumers nor artists, however, are waiting for the existing industry to catch up (Welsh 1522). Both consumers and artists are embracing new technology and benefiting from them but the music industry is getting left behind (1523). One reason why record companies are resisting these changes is because they have a lot of money invested in the more traditional ways of distributing music. Prior to 1999 and the creation of Anapest, the system worked well but with the emergence of file sharing, the music industry is left having to play catch up (1526). In the 2005 landmark case, Grosser vs..
MGM Studios, the ninth circuit court realized that the “introduction of new technology is always disruptive to old markets and particularly to the copyright owners,” but “time and market forces often provide equilibrium in balancing interests (1521). ” While there are many artists who have strong opinions against file sharing, there are also those who have used file sharing to their advantage. Already, there have been numerous artists that broken free from record labels and figured out how to use technology to their advantage. One such band is Radioed.
In 2007, Radioed announced they would release their newest album, In Rainbows, free of charge. On their website, there was a link to download the album next to a price box with an attached not reading: “it’s up to you (Welsh 1495). ” This innovative move allowed fans to pay as little or as much as they wanted and gained the band a massive amount of publicity. The actual number of downloads is unknown but the number of downloads as at least in the hundreds of thousands. The average price people paid for the album was $4 and when the album was physically released it immediately quickly went to the top of the Billboards charts (Welsh 1496).
Radioed is not the only band that it utilizing technology and discovering alternative means to music distribution to increase profits. Wilcox, a rock band based out Chicago left their record label because the label would not release their latest album. The band responded by releasing their album online for free. This gained them much popularity and created a bidding war from other record companies. Canadian Musician, Dan Smith, who calls himself Caribou, released an album in 2007 that he made only on his computer; the album made it onto the Billboard charts. Music Star M. I. A. A British immigrant from Sir Lankan, came to popularity due to trading of her early music (Welsh 1524). Embracing technology is not the only way to maintain a profit in today’s forever changing technology sector. Creating a personal connection with fans is also another way that musicians are making money and it has proven to be very profitable. Jonathan Coulter quit his Job as a software developer and now makes music from is home. When he started, he flooded the internet with his music, and encouraged the fans to get involved in the distribution, creation and marketing of his songs.
Because of creative commons licenses, which allow users to use his music for non of popularity as fans have created music videos and animations for his music. Some of these videos have been viewed millions of times and Scullion’s music gained massive amount of publicity. One of the ways that he had success was by building relationships with his fans; he would chat, blob, and tweet with his fans to create relationships with them. He eventually provided an option for fans to pay him for songs and they did, he now makes more than he did as a software developer.
This is lust one example of bands finding new, exciting ways to create relationships with audiences (Tempting, Cracking the Code to Online Success). The famous New Orleans Jazz band, Panorama connects with fans in a different Nay. One can be a roadie for a day for them for $150, one can have a number to reach them at any time of the day for $1000, and one can have them play at a house party for $10,000. As lead singer Mark Mullions said, “Were trying to find ways to fit in days ever changing music business climate. ” They are not the only ones that are doing this.
Drummer John Frees offers similar opportunities. One can have a private tour of Disneyland with him for $5000, one can mingling with him and Maynard James Keenan, the lead singer of tool, for $20,000, or one can have lunch with him for $250; all three packages have sold out (Tempting, Throwing a Panorama Birthday Party). Umpire’s McGee, a improve rock band from Chicago, allows fans to text in ideas during concerts and the band will create a song from that. Much of their success has exulted from them creating a loyal can base and all of their shows sell out very quickly.
As David Seek, Vice President of Berkeley College of Music, said, “Artists should spend more time on building a community around their music and less time trying to control how it is used” and “People are going to steal your music anyways and there is nothing you can do about it so if you embrace it, enable it, and encourage it you will attract a more loyal fan base. ” He emphasizes that building relationships with audience is one of the most important aspects to marketing a band in today’s world (Tempting, Letting Fans Direct the Band).
With the current changes in technologies, the current, outdated music industry is becoming an inadequate method for distributing music. Possibilities are endless for artists to come up with new, revolutionary ways to produce and distribute their music. Past artists have found how to utilize PEP and benefit from that is what future artists need to do. Free music download sites are a great way for artists to expose their music. Also, more and more artists are reaching out to their fans in order to create a more loyal fan base in order to make profits Artists need to learn to connect Ninth their fan base in order to make money.
The above lists of artists that have utilized the internet and file sharing and who have begun to connect with their fans are only a handful of artists that have begun to use these new methods. Because of the changes in technology and the unwillingness for the music industry to change, En should to rethink the current model for music distribution and embrace new methods to use technology and connect with fans in order to keep the music industry afloat. Norms Cited “In Praise of PEP. ” Economist 373. 8404 (2004): 35-36. Academic Search Premier. Web. Management Regimes, and Criminological Theories of Compliance.