Franz Josef Haydn was by far the most influential symphonic composer of the mid and late 1700s. How many symphonies did he write?

Franz Josef Haydn wrote 106 symphonies.


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Unlike Bach, Mozart, and Beethoven, Haydn was not born in to a musical family. List and briefly describe any five components of his career. Be sure to include his long-term position. 


Franz Josef Haydn was taken from his family at the age ofsix and sent to live with his cousin, a schoolmaster andchurch choirmaster in a neighboring town. By age eight hewas earning his own keep as a musician, first as a choirboyat St. Stephen’s Cathedral, Vienna’s main church. When hisvoice broke at age seventeen, Haydn lost his place assoloist in the choir. He struggled for a time beforebeginning his composing career. Haydn then found his  placeworking for a noble family.  He had the role ofKapellmeister, literally “chapel master,” but regarded asthe director of home musical entertainment. He first wasKapellmeister for the Morzin family, he composedapproximately fifteen pieces during his residency with theMorzin family. Haydn’s biggest break was at agetwenty-eight when he signed a contract to be theKapellmeister for the Esterházy family. Provided withimmense facilities, Haydn’s duties included the supervisionof a regular round of performances of his own music andthose of contemporaries- typically one opera and twoconcerts a week, with additional major performances forimportant guests like Empress Maria Theresa, and dailychamber music at the prince’s pleasure. In addition tothese supervisory duties, he also had to compose, so it islittle wonder that his output, like Bach’s, proved to beenormous.


Haydn set the standard for symphonic form. List the standard movement descriptors. 


Movement 1: fast; sonata form

Movement 2: slow

Movement 3: dance-like; minuet and trio (ABA)

Movement 4: fast; Rondo (theme & variations) FINALE


Describe the musical environment of Haydn’s long-term contract by preparing a paraphrase of the Taruskin 418-437 paragraph that begins “The Eszterháza compound contained two theaters, one for…” 


The Eszterháza compound contained two theaters, one foropera and the other for marionette plays and Singspiels. Inaddition there were two rooms in the palace itself, a largehall that could accommodate an orchestra and a smaller onefor chamber music. Haydn’s duties include the supervisionof a regular round of performances of his own music andthose of contemporaries- typically one opera and twoconcerts a week, with additional major performances forimportant guests like Empress Maria Theresa, and dailychamber music at the prince’s pleasure. In addition tothese supervisory duties, he also had to compose, so it islittle wonder that his output, like Bach’s, proved to beenormous. 


How is the introduction of Haydn’s Symphony 104 significant to audience etiquette? 


Opening movements of several of Haydn’s late symphoniesusually begin, as in the 104th, with a somewhat hauntingslow introduction, familiar to us already from the Frenchoverture style and likewise serving a practical as well asan aesthetic purpose: The dimming of lights in concerthalls was something that electricity would not makepossible for another hundred years or so; the audienceneeded a signal to sit down (although in fact not everyonein the audience sat), quiet down, and pay attention.Haydn’s introductions were occasionally soft and mysteriousbut more often were in the manner of of a fanfare. 


List and briefly describe the three sections of Sonata form. 


The exposition: the first theme |: I or i –> V 😐

The development: moments of theme, snippets. very dense

The recapitulation: I or i return of themes in shortenedfashion

What happens with the themes in the exposition of Haydn’s Symphony 104? 


Instead of contrasting exposition themes in the tonic andthe dominant that were typical of most symphonies, inSymphony 104 in the theme in the second key area (thedominant) is the same as the first theme. 


Who was widely regarded as the quintessential modern representative of “music expressive of a world outlook” or “philosophy music?” He completed nine numbered symphonies and left a tenth unfinished at his death in 1911. 


This is Gustav Mahler. 


Mahler’s career in music extended well-beyond the realm of composing. Describe it. 


Gustav Mahler was born in a small Bohemian town into thefamily of a Jewish distiller and tavern keeper. Of thefourteen children on six survived into maturity, leavinghim the eldest. He first showed talent as a pianist, gavean impressive public recital at the age of ten, and at agesixteen was sent to the Vienna Conservatory. Although heaudited a few of Bruckner’s lectures at the University ofVienna, he was careful to insist that he was never formallyBruckner’s pupil. Mahler did not begin to make a reputationas a composer until he was already a famous conductor,especially of opera. To scan a list of his conducting postsis to witness an astounding, truly meteoric rise topinnacle of his profession. He began with positions atprovincial opera houses before assuming major posts inPrague, Leipzig, Budapest, and Hamburg. Finally, in 1897,he was offered the greatest plum: the directorship of theVienna Court Opera, probably the most powerful musicalposition in all of Europe. To get the job he had acceptedpro forma baptism in the Catholic faith. Mahler held thepost for a decade, leaving it for prestigious and lucrativeappointments in New York, first with the Metropolitan Operaand then with the New York Philharmonic.


 What very personal experience might have influenced Mahler’s choice to set the text of Kindertotenlieder?  


The songs are written in Mahler’s late-romantic idiom, andlike the texts reflect a mixture of feelings: anguish,fantasy resuscitation of the children, resignation. Thefinal song ends in a major key and a mood oftranscendence. The poignancy of the cycle is increased bythe fact that four years after he wrote it, Mahler lost hisdaughter, Maria, aged four, to scarlet fever. He wrote toGuido Adler: “I placed myself in the situation that a childof mine had died. When I really lost my daughter, I couldnot have written these songs any more.”


;How many Kindertotenlieder poems did Mahler set to music?;


Mahler selected five of R;ckert’s poems to set as Lieder,which he composed between 1901 and 1904.


 Who once proclaimed to write a symphony “so great that the whole world is actually reflected therein-so that one is, so to speak, only an instrument upon which the universe plays.” 


This is Gustav Mahler. 


 How did Mahler exert his authoritarian perfectionism? List three ways. 



  He reinstated the customary cuts in Wagner’s long operas.

  He darkened the houselights at the opera to discourage socializing.

  He prohibited the entrance of latecomers. 


 Whose symphony begins with a sustained A spread out over seven octaves? Which symphony? 


This is Gustav Mahler and his first symphony.


 Mahler was famous for orchestration. How did he so strikingly employ these skills in Kindertotenlieder 3? 


The song totally dispenses with violins! The low stringsand violas (yes, sometimes playing in their high register)do all the string playing, which darkens the moodconsiderably.


 Provide five bullet-point elements surrounding the creation of Kindertotenlieder 3.



Mahler constantly changes time signatures so that the feeling of aimlessness is even more pronounced. In the seventy bars of music there are over twenty changes of time 

This is the only song of the cycle that does not use a major-minor modulation. The coloration and variation is achieved by other means, notably the time changes. 

In overview, several writers have perceived in Mahler’s use of spare counterpoint a Bachic influence, and Mahler was in fact studying Bach at this time.;

He ends the song on the dominant, not the tonic, an unusual step for him.

The song totally dispenses with violins! The low strings and violas (yes, sometimes playing in their high register) do all the string playing, which darkens the mood considerably.;


;What is the significance of Fr;re Jacques (Bruder Martin) in Mahler;s work?;


In Mahler;s Hans und Grethe, the third movement begins witha solo double bass playing a minor key version of Fr;reJacques. Evoking a funeral march, it is first presented asa round, or canon, but is interrupted by what sounds likespirited dance music in a Bohemian style such as Mahler hadheard played in village squares while growing up in theCzech lands.;


How, in terms of orchestration, was Mahler;s 2nd symphony, known as the ;Ressurection,; significant?;


It was written for the largest orchestra ever used up tothat time and capped off by a magnificent chorus that isreserved until the end of the final movement, an all-outattempt to surpass the finale of Beethoven;s Ninth in everydimension: length, sonorous magnitude, and philosophicaldepth.;


What movement of what symphony ultimately came to identify Mahler as the ;maximally emotional composer of fatal longing?;;


The Adagietto movement of his Fifth Symphony.;


;Romantic music is characterized as an emotional music, as a music with its sole subject being the infinite. ;Romanticism was, and still is, no single idea but, rather, a whole heap of ideas;; But what does being Romantic mean to the individual, within and beyond music? What act best exemplifies the meaning of Romantic?;


To be Romantic meant seeking one;s uniqueness. It meant alife devoted to self-exploration.;


;Provide bullet-point lists of characteristics of the Classical (4 points).;



; Simpler textures: Homophonic textures (usually melody andaccompaniment) became the standard. Contrapuntaltexture was used sparingly, and for specific purposes.;

; Simpler melodies: Melodies usually fall into evenphrases, and often were organized into symmetrical”question and answer” structures. Many composers foundinspiration in folk melodies.;

; The piano: The piano, with its ability to producegradations of dynamics, became the most important soloinstrument in this era.;

; Form: Simple, rational forms, including two- and three-part forms became the essential building blocks of allClassical forms, especially the Sonata Allegro form.;


Provide bullet-point lists of characteristics of the Romantic (6 points) Eras.;



; Dynamic range is wider, and there is a larger range ofsound.;

; There is a greater variety of instruments, includingimproved or newly-invented wind instruments.;

; Melodies are longer, more dramatic and emotional.;

; Tempos are more extreme, and tempo rubato is often calledfor.;

; Harmonies are fuller, often more dissonant.;

; Formal structures are expanded. These are oftendetermined by the programmatic content of the piece.;


Define and explain occursus.


Occursus is when two melodic lines stop being parallel andinstead approach the final note in contrary motion. The voxorganalis begins behaving like a drone or a sequence ofdrones when there is an opportunity to do so it recoverssymphonia (P4) against a repeated note in the voxprincipalis. Parallel doubling is not acceptable withoutmodification because of the tritone, aka ;Diabolus inMusica.; Adjusting the doubling of the vox organaliseliminates tritones.


List and define the terms that describe fundamentals of listening. Be sure to include a ;sublist; that includes monophonic, polyphonic, etc.


Melody – the tune people hear/sing along with

Harmony – A part different from the melody

Rhythm – The patterned recurrence of events; time-relationamong sounds (Meter, Polyrhythm, Homorhythm, etc.)

Timbre – Tone Quality

Texture – Describe how melody and harmony interact

; ; ;- Monophonic = one singer/melody in unison

; ; ;- Heterophonic = 2 or more voices elaborate the samemelody in different ways

; ; ;- Homophonic = one primary voice and one accompanyingvoice

; ; ;- Polyphonic = 2 or more distinct melodies combined

Form – The structure of a musical performance; ;How it isput together/How it works;

; ; ;- Binary/Tertiary;

Instrumentation – The particular musical instruments used


;Define oblique, contrary, and parallel motion.


Oblique: One voice remains in place while another moves

Contrary: Two voices moving in opposite directions(counterpoint)

Static: one voice moves while the other does not

Parallel: Voices move in the same direction, keeping thesame interval between them


Describe the relevance of sheet music and aural/oral traditions in the dissemination of music in the Medieval period.


Sometime over 1000 years ago music stopped being almostexclusively oral tradition. History of written music in thewest began for services of the Roman Catholic Church.Before this, music was purely aural/oral. In Frankishmonastic centers manuscripts were produced withunheightened neumes, ;showing transmission of melodiesremained primary aural/oral. In no way did literaturesuddenly replace oral transmission.


Describe the relevance of sheet music and aural/oral traditions in the dissemination of music today.


Current day music students heavily rely on written musicalliterature. Musical composition in an oral context is notthe same as improvisation. Examples: Jingle Bells, HappyBirthday, Amazing Grace are songs learned today throughaural/oral tradition.


;Consider the Well-Tempered Clavier. Who wrote it? How many pieces are contained therein? How are they organized?


The Well-Tempered Clavier was written by Johann SebastianBach. There are twenty-four pieces total. It is organizedby a major key and it;s parallel minor key and a preludeand a fugue for each key.


A fugue by definition, must have at least two voices. Use the following terms to describe a fugal compositional process: subject, exposition, answer, countersubject, episode, stretto.


Subject – motive of the piece; melody that comprises theprimary melodic/rhythmic material of a fugue

Exposition – Portions of fugue with subject and answers;most appear in all voices

Answers – Subject imitation which immediately follows thefirst statement of subject (usually a P5 higher)

Countersubject – counterpoints for subjects or answerssounding simultaneously in a different voice

Episode – Section in which motives from expositionin…sequence, modulation, contrary motion,double counterpoint, stretto,; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;; ; ; ; ;augmentation /diminuation

Stretto – Entry of motive in a 2nd voice before the 1stvoice finishes


;Present a brief overview of J.S. Bach;s biography.


– 1685 – 1750

– Much more important after death

– Born in Eisenach, Saxony (German province) ; Never leftGermany

– Orphaned at age 9

– lived with older brotherl situations, but he was excused; ;for expressing artistic talent or ;divine inspiration.;

– 1703-1707 organist at Church of St. Boniface

– Served as organist and musical director at multiplechurches in Germany until death;

– Married at 22

– First wife died 1720, remarried next year

– 20 children, 12 survived childhood

– Some became more famous than their father at thetime

Loved putting his name in music (Bb, A, C, Bnat)


;Present a brief overview of Josquin des Prez;s biography.


I. ca 1450-1521

II. Legendary during his life and throughout the 16thcentury, and again in modern times.

III. He was a weirdo who acted strange in social situations

IV. Newly available music printing helped to circulate hiswork.

V. His contemporaries include Leonardo Da Vinci(1452-1519), Michaelangelo (1475-1564), Raphael(1483-1520)

VI. Glareanus declared him creator of ;arsperfecta; (;perfect art;).

VII. Humanism- renewed interest in study of ancient textsthat informed the ideals of the Renaissance.

VIII. Many people wrote fraudulent pieces under Josquin;sname, even after his death


;Present a brief history of the term ;Baroque;.


First applied to a musical composition (Jean-Philippe Rameau;s opera ;Hippolte et Aricie) in 1734 ; meant to be an insult

– ;A baroque music is that in which the harmony isconfused, charged with modulations and dissonances,the melody is harsh and little natural, the intonationdifficult, and the movement constrained.; – JeanJacques Rousseau

– Label used to encompass the music of the period from1600-1750

– From the times of the first operas to the death of Bach

-Should be ;Italian Age; because most musical innovationstook place in Italy

– Branched out to other areas of Europe

– ;Baroque Era; began in Italy in late 1500s

– Died out in Germany in the middle of the 18th century

– Definition: Extravagantly ornate, florid, and convolutedin character or style


What is plainchant? How are additional voices added? Provide a textbook-like description to a composer.


Plainchant is a mostly monophonic form of chant.;

– For the most part the music was used as part of a liturgyin the ;church.;

The text usually came from prayers.;

;At times it can be considered slightly homophonic with the use of a drone which sings the final


Provide an overview of harmonic development, including concepts of consonance and dissonance, from the Middle Ages through the Renaissance.


-In the Middle Ages, fourths, fifths, octaves and unisonswere considered consonance while seconds, thirds,sixths, and sevenths were considered dissonance

-In the Renaissance, full triads came into use as well asfour-part harmony

– Major and minor intervals are considered consonance as ofthe Baroque Period and counterpoint harmony is used


List the Church Modes.


Ionian. (do-do)

Dorian. (re-re)

Phrygian. (mi-mi)

Lydian. (fa-fa)

Mixolydian. (sol-sol)

Aeolian. (la-la)

Locrian. (ti-ti)


;List at least five musical features of the polyphonic style in the Middle Ages


Non-imitative counterpoint

Rhythms were restless and active

Melodies were long and asymmetric

Harmonies were on perfect intervals

Pieces often built on an already written melody


;List at least three musical features of the monophonic style in the Middle Ages.


1. Drones

2. Long and flowing melodies

3. Rhythm not notated


;List at least five musical features of the Renaissance Era.


;Music was sacred, secular or instrumental

;Imitative/homorhythmic textures

;smooth gentle rhythms

;melodies with balanced phrases

;harmonies of full triads

;vocal forms tied to the structure of the text


;List at least seven musical features of the Baroque Era.


;More complex melodies

;Mixed voices/instrumentation

;Dramatic leaps


;Basso continuo (;bass does not give up;)

;Sharp and sudden dissonances

;Many in dance form;


;What are the two most common form types in jazz? Name an example of each.


12 Bar Blues- Fine and Mellow, Billie Holiday

AABA- Take the A Train, Duke Ellington


;List characteristics of modern jazz.


Modern jazz borrows from other styles of music: pop, rock,etc. In modern jazz, often complex meters and rhythms areutilized. There is also a large influence of technology inmodern jazz.;


;What instruments comprise a rhythm section, and what are the primary performance practice techniques of each instrument in Early and Swing Eras?



Piano- ;comp; chords. adds the color tones of the chordsand places them at various rhythmic times within theform of the piece

Bass- ;walking; line. Keeps a steady time, and outlineschords in a ;walking; fashion

Drum Set- Provides time behind the other performers. InSwing Charts, the set player usually plays aquarter-eighth-eighth-quarter-eighth-eighth pattern ona ride cymbal to keep time.


How does improvisation work?


Improvisation is ;doing whatever the hell that you want.;Based on a chord structure written underneath a ;head; thefeatured soloist will perform an improv solo where theycreate their own melody on the spot of performance.;


;List the jazz eras.


1900-1930: Early Jazz Era

1930-1945: Swing Jazz Era

1940-1950: Bebop (Bop) Era

1950-1960: Cool Jazz Era- Miles Davis ;Kind of Blue;

1960- NOW: Modern Jazz

;Define Jazz as it appears in Grove Music Online (paraphrase):;


The term conveys different though related meanings: 1) amusical tradition rooted in performing conventions thatwere introduced and developed early in the 20th century byAfrican Americans; 2) a set of attitudes and assumptionsbrought to music-making, chief among them the notion ofperformance as a fluid creative process involvingimprovisation; and 3) a style characterized by syncopation,melodic and harmonic elements derived from the blues,cyclical formal structures and a supple rhythmic approachto phrasing known as swing.