blue note
a flattened-third scale step commonly used in the blues
a rhythmic effect that provides an unexpected accent, often by temporarily unsettling the meter through a change in the established pattern of stressed and unstressed beats
musical style that originated in New Orleans,
Louis Armstrong
jazz musician famous for his trumpet playing and singing
Jubilee Singers of
Fisk University
African American a capella ensemble
Scott Joplin
ragtime composer and pianist
Vietnamese New Year
da vu
“night dance”, large popular music event in Vietnamese diasporas
Ca Hue
vietnamese chamber music
dan bau
a Vietnamese zither with a pitch-bending bar
dan tranh
a vietnamese sixteen-stringed zither
dan nyac
Vietnamese music style that combines Western instruments and Vietnamese lyrics
Pham Duy
Vietnamese composer p 202
song cycle
a group of songs that are composed as a set, sometimes because they have texts by the same poet or are connected in some other way
counter melody
a melody that contrasts with a main melody, or tune, played at the same time
a Vietnamese lullaby
a Vietnamese work song
a type of ballad, usually strophic, that commemorates important events and memorable individuals in Mexican and Mexican-American History
Gregorio Cortez
subject of a hero corrido, shot a sheriff in Texas, later aquitted
hero corrido
corridos that portray a larger-than-life figure, ex. Gregorio Cortez
narco corrido
drug ballad, compared to African-American gangsta rap, popular in border areas
Revolutionary corrido
type of corrido that focuses on social and economic hardships experienced during Carlos Salinas de Gotari’s term as president of Mexico
New Orleans Jazz Band
band with 5-14 instruments including cornets or trumpets, trombones, violin, percussion, and saxophone, with vibrato, loud volume and polyphony
second liners
crowd that follows behind the band during a jazz funeral as they process through the stretts
sheet music samplers
played sheet music outside of music stores to advertise new songs
an instrumental lament played at a slow tempo
precursor to jazz
hymns sung by Middle Eastern Jews, featuring sacred Hebrew texts set to popular Arab melodies
a song in which new text is set to a borrowed or preexisting melody
section of four pitches in the maqam. Each maqam has two.
in Arab vocal music, an improvisation that indroduces a song and establishes the maqam used in the rest of the piece
a Sabbath-afternoon songfest of unaccompanied pizmonim held among Syrian Jews in North America to celebrate a special occasion
a capella
unaccompanied voices
a party held among Syrian Jews and other peoples of Middle Eastern descent, to celebrate a special occasion such as an anniversary, usually featuring a professional vocalist who sings popular Arabic songs with accompaniment
a classical Arab vocal form marked by a regular rhythm and rhyme scheme and a tree-part form
maqam ajam
a maqam that resembles the Western major mode
steel guitar
An electromechanical instrument derived from the guitar, usually placed flat when played, whose characteristic sounds include a pronounced vibrato, slides, and “palm harmonics”or “chimes
Tao Moe family
Hawaiian family that toured the world performing Hawaiin music
Felix Mendelssohn
impresario who managed the Tao Moe family
a manager of performers or a director of a concert series
a small, four-stringed Hawaiian chordophone that became popular in the twentieth century
Silk Road Project
project created by Yo Yo Ma to explore the music of the various countries along the silk road
Silk Road Ensemble
musical collective that is part of the silk road project
Yo-Yo Ma
American composer and cello player who organized the Silk Road project
Chinese lute
Wu Man
pipa player, part of Silk Road Ensemble
a free aerophone with reeds that are hidden within two rectangular headboards that are connected by a folding bellows, with keys or buttons to play a melody and chords
a button accordion associated with the tango
orquestra tipica
ensemple that accompanies the tango, usually consisting of a piano, violin, and bandoneon
long-short rhythmic pattern in tango, derived from a Cuban rhythm
a type of urban gaucho reputed to be both Don Juan and pimp
outskirts of Buenos Aires where tango originated
the Argentinian word for cowboy
Argentinian-derived style of song and dance
international tango
type of tango that is more classic
American tango
type of tango that focuses on close dance style
Argentinian tango
type of tango that is more laid back, usually for an ensemble
Astor Piazzolla
tango composer who created new tango which included classical and jazz influences, intended for concert hall
Carlos Gardel
singer most responsible for internationalization of the tango
social dance event named after an Argentine dance that was a predecessor of the tango
South Indian group dance by men, from Punjab region
North Indian dance incorporating narrative and abstract
a double-headed South Asian membranophone associated with bhangra
a dance performed by Punjabi women that is equivalent to the male bhangra
common bhangra rhythm
instrument used in bhangra
idiophone used in bhangra
single-pitch string instrument used in bhangra
Punjab region
area between India and Pakistan, where bhangra originated
a fast dance in duple meter that has become identified with Polish peoples, although it originated in Bohemia
Polish girl
a distinctive style of accordion music, popular among Mexican-Americans, whose ensemble includes an accordion, a guitar, bass, and percussion
hidden transcripts
hidden messages in the lyrics, metaphorical or coded
public transcripts
open musical displays that perpetuate an existing power structure
South African language
South African language
South African Dutch dialect
segregation in South Africa
a style of urban Jamaican popular music that originated among the Rastafarians of Jamaica in the 1960’s
Ras Tafari
a.k.a. Haile Selasie, Ethiopian regent
religion movement from Jamaica which venerate Ras Tafari
predecessor of reggae, based on an indigenous Jamaican rhytym that emphasized off-beats in a quadruple rhythmic pattern
rock steady
developed after ska, with a much slower tempo, drum and bass line, and texts of freedom and equality
Bob Marley
most famous Reggae performer
Peter Tosh
one of the performers who helped develop reggae, created protest music
Algonquian for “powwow”
Native American social gatherings that feature ceremonies, celebrations, and dance competitions
honor beats
a series of drumbeats that clue the important sound of the drum
flag songs
performed during powwow that takes place of national anthem
war dance
a Native American dance performed by men
hoop dance
Native American dance with hoops representing the circle of life
a vocal sound of joy or celebration commonly produced by women in Africa and the Middle East
brass section
section of the orchestra that contains the trumpet, tuba, trombone, etc
percussion section
section of the orchestra that contains the snare, timpani, bass drum and harp
string section
section of the orchestra that contains the violin, viola, cello, and double bass
woodwind section
section of the orchestra that contains the clarinet, oboe, flute, and bassoon
an end-blown Middle Eastern flute whose sound has a breathy quality
Reza Vali
composer of the flute concerto,Iranian/persian living in the u.s.
traditional Persian musical system consisting of a number of categories of melody that are distinguished by pitch content, melodic contours, and ornamentation
flute concerto
song: combines western and persian style, written by Reza Vali
hourglass-shaped Middle Eastern drum used in Reza Vali’s concerto for flute and orchestra
large Middle Eastern frame drum
short Persian melody
Dastgah Homayoun
Persian music for the ney by hassan kassayi
mode used in folk music which has a somber sound and is often played by the ney
A Thousand Miles from Home
song: Vietnamese chamber music, Perfume River traditional Ensemble, pentatonic mode w/ three main pitches, section in free rhythm and section in fixed rhythm, vibrato and sliding between pitches
song: Vietnamese lullaby played on dan bau
Come to Hue, Come
song: Pham Duy composed, verse refrain, slow free rhythm, lullaby, pentatonic scale, vocables
Endless Road, National Road
song: Vietnamese song cycle
Gregorio Cortez corrido
song: mexican american hero corrido
Amazing Grace
song: dirge played in jazz funeral
Attah El Kabbir
song: Syrian Jewish pizmon
Mifalot Elohim
song: pizmon
the Wheat Song
song: Arabic song used in a film and later adapted for a pizmon
Samoan Moon
song: Hawaiian song
Xiao Yue Er Gao
song: aka High Little Moon
Mido Mountain
song: folk song performed by Silk Road Ensemble, pentatonic scale, western and eastern instruments are used
Aao Nachiye “Come Let’s Dance”
song: Sangeet Group and Anoop Cheema, two main sections contrasting in performance style and melody, instrumental intro and conclusion, four beat units, call and response, unison, and heterophony, song and shouts, off beat accents and syncopation, traditional instruments like dhol, dholaki and chimta
Beer Barrel Polka
song: Valeria Longoria, composed by Vejvoda, strphic w/ duple meter, performed by conjunto
La Cumparsita
song: Matos Rodriguez, orquestra tipica, tango-romanza, quadruple meter, minor mode
La Cumparsita-Carlos Gardel
song: modified verse/refrain form, minor, pessimistic lyrics, syncopation, dramatic changes in tempo
Adios Nonino
song: Piazzola, double three part structure, tempo varies, mainly in minor mode but starts in major mode, combines tango, concert music and jazz
Nkosi Sikelel I Afrika
st pauls church choir in South Africa, song: strophic with verse and refrain, major mode, quadruple meter, hymn then national anthem, several languages in words, western harmony, call and response and vocal slides, parallel bass and soprano
Get Up, Stand Up
song: Peter Tosh, strophic w/ refrain, minor mode, quadruple meter, electric guitars, organ, rastafarian references in opposition to christian beliefs as basis for political action
Shoshone Flag Song
song: Helene Furlong, salute presentation of the flag that begins every powwow, Iterative verses, wide vocal range, furlong doubles or seconds Bonatsie, bonatsie uses falsetto, slow tempo, vocables and ululation
Shoshone War Dance
song: Furlong and Bonatsie, abbabb form followed by a nduah, fast tempo, pulsation in the male vocal style
Concerto for Flute and Orchestra
song: Reza Vali, Boston Modern Orchestra, concerto in two movements, solosit playhs and hums to simulate ney, darabukkah, melodies use slides and quarter tones of persian scale, mosaic elaboration, orchestra divided into three ensembles