gamelan gong kebyar

-kebyar: “to flare up”

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-composed music

-for listening or to accompany dance

wayang kulit

-small gamelan ensemble

-puppet show tells story from Ramayana

paired tuning

-produces shimmering (beats)

(not in unison nor as separate sounds, just beats)

-ex. gamelan gong kebyar’s shimmering quality

gong cycle

-a recurring sequence of strokes played on gongs of different size and pitch

-ex. Kecak

gamelan beleganjur

-processional ensemble

-“gamelan of walking warriors”

-warfare, rituals for dead, evil spirit battles



-timekeeping: gong ageng/”great gong”

-elaborations: reyong/small and high pitched pots

-texture: kendang (drum), ceng ceng (cymbal)

-melody gongs

kilitan telu

-rhythmic interlocking

-basis for great variety of different interlocking textures in Balinese music, some melodic and others purely rhythmic

-symbol of a Balinese cultural division of an integrated, interdependent community

-greater than sum of individual parts (all rhythms interlocked)


-gamelan suara or “voice gamelan”

-uses gamelan gong cycles, melodies, textures, but is chanted

-contemporary setting is dance drama

-uses interlocking/kilitan telu

kreasi beleganjur


-pageantry, costumes, and choreography

-varied texture between sections

-fast section, slow section, then fast section

-traditional beleganjur instrumentation/playing style


-ex. 2-7 is neo-traditional


-present in kreasi beleganjur

-choreographed movements

-reference to beleganjur symbols like cremation tower spinning

Bollywood film music

-Filmi git are Indian film songs

-largest film industry in world

-major component of contemporary music is bhangra



-originated as folk/harvest music in the Punjab region

-Dhol, flute, other instruments

-Women’s version is giddha

-Anakh Punjab Di

(2 sounds, bass and snare)



-Hindu devotional songs

-traditional associated with Bhakti Hinduism


-Sufi devotional music

-communion with divine

-lead singer plus ensemble of vocalists/instrumentalists

classical music

-melody, drone, rhythm

-singing is highest form of expression

-instrumental parallels vocals

-hindustani (international) versus Carnatic (singing more elevated)


-sitar, tambura, tabla

-guru (mentor), gharana

-gharana is “musical family”/school of raga (shared style/approach, similar to uncle/nephew)


-vina (a plucked chordophone)

-South India

-status of singing more elevated relative to instrumentals

-distinct from Hindustani since 16th century

-less influence from Islamic cultures

Ravi Shankar

-most famous indian classical musician

-incredibly influential instrumentalist

-north indian


-collaborations (west meets east)

-“keeping tal”, marking musical time


-complete and self-contained melodic system



*5 Features of Ragas*

  1. identifying set of pitches

  2. unique ornaments and patterns

  3. rules and procedures for playing

  4. repertoire or compositions

  5. host of extramusical associations




-rhythmic framework

-metric cycle

-Sam is the first and last beat of cycle

-each has certain number/strength of beats

-theka, tintal


-Skeletal drum pattern outlining tala cycle

-may be outlined with bols, or spoken syllables of tabla sounds

-drummer improvises, often finishing with tihai, a rhythmic cadence repeated 3x


-counting and drum syllables

-16 beat pattern

-Khali (O) is the empty beat, opposite of sam (X)

X . . . X . . . O . . . X . . .


-nonmetric, slow moving


-each principal tone explored

-melodic range expands

-rhythms become more animated until pulse


-tabla enters


-improvised and composed sections (in raga) that become longer

-musical dialogue

-gradual increase in tempo

-goal of Nada Brahma, “the Sound of God”

John McLaughlin and Shakti

-converted to Hinduism

-studied with Shankar, played w/ Miles Davis

-used his own modified guitar


-Shakti (“creative intelligence, beauty, and power”)

-Indian musicians, including Ravi Shankar’s nephew (Zakir Hussain, tabla)

-Hindustani and Carnatic musicians

Trilok Gurtu


-Tabla player

-Created own percussion kit

-Signature bucket of water for changing pitch and timbres

-Member of John McLaughlin Trio

-Fusion music



-6/7 strings, 13 sympathetic strings (vibrate in response)

-melody and drone


-movable frets

-slight parabolic bridge for javari



-4/5 strings played open in regular patterns

-gourd resonator (wood in south)

-fundamental pitches of raga, vadi (tonic)

-Jivari bridge and jiva threads (gives soul or life)

-comes in different sizes to accompany males, females, sitars


-membranophone(s) w/ goatskin heads

-black spots in middle (different timbres in same drum)

-tunable (all in tune with one another)

-produces many sounds


Irish music

-regional folk music styles

-symbolic of national identity

-most commercially successful traditional music of europe

-traditional (irish fiddle solo), neo (ensemble of acoustic instruments), post (rock influenced)

Five categories of traditional

1. sean nos (sung in Gaelic,;prominent melodic ornamentation,;distinctive rhythmic phrasing,;emotion,;nature poetry, love songs, and religious mysticism)

2. airs (slow instrumental melodies often performed in free rhythm)

3. sung in English

4. irish harp (often diatonic)

5.;instrumental dance tunes and medleys (most popular type of music)

A musical form in which two or more pieces are performed one after another without pause
commonly used dance rhythm in Irish music
commonly used dance rhythm in Irish music, duple time, DAH – da
The most commonly used Irish dance rhythm, duple time, DAH da da da, more even sounding than hornpipe.
decoration, or adornment, of the main notes of a melody by additional notes and ornaments. ;5 common ornaments in Irish music = roll, cran, triplet, cut, and treble
Irish Traditional Instruments
fiddle, tinwhistle, Irish flute
Irish handheld frame drum with a goat skin head.
uilleann pipes
Irish traditional instrument, like a bagpipe, regarded as most distinct Irish music instrument. ;Produces a drone (3), chanter makes melody, 3 regulators are for chords. ;Bellows under elbow.
Seamus Ennis
One of the greatest Uillean Pipers, learned from father, folk music collector, mobile unit of Radio Eireann, worked for BBC, part of the 1960’s Irish music revival.
Irish neotraditional music
ensembles, chords, multiple melodies, alternating solos, formalization of music.  For listening, not dancing
informal, pub, dancing
Irish music session
not for dancing, more common, informal, musicians gather to play
Irish post-traditional
rock influences, Eileen Ivers, taking Irish music and blending it with other types, crossing borders, 
The Chieftains
neotraditional Irish music, fronted by Paddy Maloney, boundary blurring and collaborations.  Widely influential and internationally renowned.
post 1970’s, flagbearers for traditional Irish music scene. ;Also neotraditonal
Eileen Ivers
featured fiddler in Riverdance, post traditional, very famous and talented
musical Africanisms

1. complex polyphonic textures

2.layered ostinatos

3. conversational elements

4. improvisation

5.Timbral variety

6. distinctive pitch systems and scales

drum ensemble for chief processions and empowerment. Consists of from, atumpan, eguankoba, and gongon
largest drum for Africa chapter
drum always held in stand in africa
supporting drum, for call and response (africa)
iron bell, time keeper (africa)
jeli, jelimuso
mande people, men (jeli) and women (jelimuso). ;hereditary class, professional musicians. ;Kouyate, Diabete, Sissoko are some of the families
praise songs
instrument like a xylophone. ;idiophone, 3 octaves, 17-21 wooden keys, calabash (gourd) resonators, buzzing, ostinato, melody, and hocketing.
banjo-like plucked chordophone, fretless, string number varies, possible ancestor of banjo.
a harp lute, 21 string chordophone, calabash resonator, nylon fishing line, international symbol for West Africa, Mande people, played sitting or standing
layered ostinatos
melodic flourish
speech-like singing style
Seckou Keita
kora master, jeli, member of royal lineage so a person of controversy for playing music
Taj Mahal
American blues guitarist, loved the kora, made an album with jeli masters
Angelique Kidjo
pop artist with strong ties to West African music and culture. ;From Benin, sings in Fon.