Shape-note singing
notes were shapes to help non-musicians read music
“Blue” notes
pitch inflections, microtonal, African origin
Lining out
leader first, chorus join in 2x
The Sacred Harp
collection of shaped notes singing songs
nonsense syllables
Ghost Dance

restore the past, balance, community

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Old Man Jack Wilson encouraged it,

no instruments just stomping feet

American Indian celebrations of community and spirituality, drum, dance, song, vendors, plains people, traditional or non-traditional
food//sing/dance from Chief, share your wealth, generosity brought honor to giver
How is song constructed?

Lead (melody by lead singer)

1st chorus

honor beats (3 strong beats)

2nd chorus (repeated 3 or 4 times)

Contemporary American Indian Flute Music

Keith Bear (Mandan)

Andrew Vasquez (Apache)

R. Carlos Nakai (Ute, Navaho) 

Predominacne of vocal music accompanied by percussion
American Indian music texture
Flutes are the most frequently found melody instruments but are less common than percussion

1/2 of all recordings are flutes 

not equal to cultural use

Plains style singing
singing style used at powwows
silly song, borrowing from country western style, sweetheart, one eyed ford
Spritual leader who advocated the Ghost Dance


Old Man Jack Wilson

Purpose of the Ghost Dance

restore the past, balance, community,

spiritual connection

Government’s response to the Ghost Dance

Wounded Knee Massacre

Government afraid

At;what Navaho ceremony do the Yei appear?
What are the Yei?
The god’s that make an appearance on the 9th day (in masks)
What type of vocal production distinguishes the Yeibichai song?
What Navaho ceremony was performed to drive out any evil spirits contacted while a person was away from community?
Enemy way
What Navajo ceremony would be performed for safety and well being?
What term do the Navaho use to describe themselves?
The People or Dine’
What is the general term used to refer to a chantway ceremony?
A Sing
Who performs the songs?
The singer
Who receives the songs?
The one sung over
Gathering of likeminds to restablish culture
What is the predominate style of singing at the powwow?
Plains style
What is an intertribal?

Gathering of many tribes

Call on any drum, sing your own song, all can dance

What are the two types of powwos?



What does the drum at a powwow represent?
heart beat of the people
What is powwow atire called?
What creature does the Women’s Fancy Shawl Dance portray?
What is the purpose of a Giveaway?
The giver is honored for sharing his wealth.
How does the Men’s Fancy Dancediffer from the Men’s Traditional Dance?