Why are Certain African Drums, like the Atumpan, able to literally speak?
Twi is a tonal language, so the sounds of its syllables are dictated by specific patterns of pitch,rhythm, and tibral…thus it can be replicated by the drum
How has the jeliya tradition been significant to the history of Mande society and culture?

1. Jeliu are the praise songs of Mande culture

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2. They are the purveyors of the hallowed Mande musical art of Jeliya

3. Jelilu have also served the important roles of being historians, genealogists, and social/political commentators

Traditionally, what was the function of the Fontomfrom ensemble and its music in Akan Societies?

1. Fontomfrom performances are a long-established chiefly traition to symbolized an Akan Chiefs power and stature

2. Fontomfrom drums are played at events at which the chief makes a public appearance

What were the six musical Africanisms listed in the chapter? How do they apply to the various musical examples explored?

1. Complex polyphonic textures- Fontomfrom music

2. Layered ostinatos with varied repitition- 3/14

3. Conversational element-drum proverb.

4. Impovisation- incorporation of improv 

5. Timbral variety-voices and instruments manipulated to produce “buzzing” sound (mbira)

6. Distinctive pitch systems and scales- integral to musical aesthetics and style

What does the last name “Keita” imply about a Mande person’s family lineage? What do the last names Kouyate, Diabate, and Sissoko imply about a Mande person’s family lineage?

1. Keita- Royal name. Anyone with this name is forbidden from being a jeli

2. Kouyate, Diabate, and Sissoko- principal hereditary jeli families

What “musical Africanisms” and cultural traditions were carried from West Afria to coastal South Carolina and Georgia by slaves in the 18th century?

Jazz and Blues


What are raqs baladi, raqs sharki, and belly dance? In what ways are these three domains of dance tradition related? In what ways do they differ?

1. Raqs baladi- Folk dance. associations wit rural culture or origins. traditional dance styles associated with women’s social gatherings and rituals

2. Raqs sharki- oriental dance. professional entertainment medium. weddings, nightclubs, and cabarat performances, films and other mass media. music is more cosmopolitn and modern than raqs baladi. privileges showmanship and entertainment over communal ritual and celebration.

3. Belly dance-generic, all-encompassing, englissh-language term used in the West to refer to all Middle Eastern forms of women’s dance. Specifically sed in reference to Western/international derivatives and offshoots of Egyptian and Middle Eastern raqs balari and raqs sharqi forms

What are the standard drums and other percussion insruments used in the accompment of Egyptian women’s dance music?

1. Tabla (is the lead drum in Egyptian dance)

2. Mazhar, duff, riqq, tabla, doholla, sagat

What are the dance rhythms that we discussed in class? Why are these significant in Egyptian culture?

1. Zaar

2. Fallahi- an upbeat rhythm that is traditionally used in accompaniment of songs and dances of celebration performed during agricultural rituals of the Nile Delta region

3. Saaidi-connotes the traditional balai culture of other rural areas in Egypt. Closely linked to tahtib, and Egyptian martial art

What is ghawazi? What is the literal meaning of the word ghawazi and how is this significant in terms of understanding the perception of professional female dancers in Egypt?

1. Ghawazi is what hereditary families of dancers which Egyptian woman’s dance and its international derivatives are associated with is called

2. Literal meaning is “outsider” or “invader”

3. Is significant because it implies that, in the Arab-Egyptian worldview, the female dancer who dances in the company of men for profit is a figure tied fundamentaly to foreignness, to marginality, to aggressive intrusion

What was significant about the contributions of Samia Gamal and Farida Fahmy to Egyptian dance, culture, and national identity?

1. Samia Gamal was the quintessential progressive modernist of Equptian arts and entertainment for raqs sharqi

2. Was the first Egyptian dancer to dance with a veil also first in high heels. Most influential figures involved in the syncretization of middle eastern and western cance elements in raqs sharqi

3. Farida Fahmy trascended the conventianal “erotic and Disdained image of the female dancer” in egypt to become a national symbol and a heroic figure of Egyptian virtue

Talking Drum

What is an instrument in it?



 From- Ghana


What instrument?



sounds like drums randomly playing at same time



What instrument?


Instrument- Kora


sounds like accoustic 


What instrument?


instruments-qanun, nay

from- egypt

sounds like italy

Baladi We Hetta

What instrument?



From- Egypt

Sounds like starts with drums then goes to italian

Arabian Knights

What instrument?



Instrument- mazmar


sounds like snake charmer

Alla Hai

What instrument?


instrument-mazhar, duff


hand motion/ dance