Is there generation loss between digital Files?
No, there is no generation (quality) loss.
What is a DAW?
Digital Audio Workstation (Digital Sequencer, Hard-Disk Recorder)
What are the three characteristics of a DAW?
Pointer Based, Non Linear, and Non Destructive.
How Many tracks are available in Pro-Tools LE? Track Types?
32 Mono tracks, 128 Total tracks (96 inactive), Music production tool kit extends to 48 active tracks.
(128 Aux inputs)
(64 Master Faders)
(256 Midi Tracks)
(32 Instrument Tracks)
What File types and sample rates are supported?
16 or 24bit BWF, AIFF, or SDII files.
Sample rates: 44.1, 48, 88.2, and 96kHz
Name 3 things stored in a session folder.
Audio Files, Fade Files Folder, Session File.
(Session File is a map of all elements associated with project) (Wave Cache File stores waveform display data for session) (Fade files are audio files)
What is the difference between an audio file, and an audio region?
Audio file is digital audio stored on drive, and an Audio Region is a graphic object representing audio
What are types of regions?
Whole File Regions: Bold Type representing complete file
Non-Whole File Regions: Plain type, part of audio file.
How many active rulers are available at any given time?
Only 1 active ruler at a time.
How many primary windows exist in Pro-Tools?
2 Primary Windows: Edit window and Mix window
What are the 4 edit modes in Pro-Tools?
Slip: moves freely to any sample location
Grid: moves between points on a defined grid (absolute grid snaps material to a grid point; relative grid moves material by a grid value)
Shuffle: Moves material within region boundaries
Spot: places audio in a specific location
What edit tools are available?
Zoom, Selector, Time Grabber
What are the available file formats?
Stereo Interleaved: L&R channels together in a file
Split Stereo: separate L&R files
(Pro-Tools does not support stereo files, but does support stereo tracks and regions)
What is an offline region?
A region in the region list whose source file does not exist on the hard drive?
What is the difference between Add/Copy/Convert when importing?
Add: Uses and references original audio file without moving it to the Audio Files Folder
Copy: copies files to Audio Files folder
Convert: copies to Audio Files folder after converting sample rate, bit depth, and file format.
What are three ways to import audio?
Import Audio from file menu
Use Digibase browser
Use Finder/Explorer
What is minimum selection length for loop playback?
1/2 second minimum
What trim options are available in the edit menu?
Trim to selection (removes all region except selection)
Start to Insertion (Removes between start and cursor)
End to Insertion (Removes between cursor and end)
How do you reverse the trim tool’s direction?
Option button (in slip mode Control lets you trim exactly to next region)
How are regions nudged in Pro-Tools?
Use plus or minus sign on numeric keypad.
Can a locked region be moved, edited or recorded over?
It can not be moved or edited, but it still may be recorded over when locked.
How can you move the cursor to the previous transient?
With Tab to Transient engaged, Option Tab will move cursor to previous dynamic peak (Select mode with shift button)
What are the four ways to save?
Save: updates changes in session file
Save as: creates new session file with current status
Save Copy In: Complete backup copy of session (for use when saving to older version of PT)
Auto Backup: Makes backup session automatically
What is a DSP chip?
Digital Signal Processors (processes digital audio)
What is an audio interface?
A physical audio connection to the computer
What is the difference between primary and secondary storage?
Primary: used for main storage of session (OS, software, session files)
Secondary: used for back up purposes (CD-R, DVD-R, removable hard drive, etc.)
What is the difference between hardware and host based systems?
Hardware: Engine and plug in processing handled by DSP chips
Host Based: Engine and plug in processing handled by CPU
What is a Hybrid-System?
Host based system with added DSP chips.
Name the Digital I/O formats and their channel capabilities.
AES/EBU: 2 channels
S/PDIF: Sony Phillips Digital Interface
TDIF: 8 Channels (Tascam Digital Interface)
ADAT: 8 Channels (Alesis Digital Audio Tape)
MADI: 56 Channels (Multichannel Audio Digital Interface)
Can memory locations be made on the fly?
Yes they may be created while playing or recording.
What 3 options are available when setting Time Properties in a memory location?
Marker: to set a placeholder at specific point for return
Selection: Remember for later editing
None: Remembering settings for zoom, track height, etc. (independent of marker or selection)
What are the general properties of Memory locations?
Zoom settings, Pre/Post Roll Times, Track Show/Hide, Track Heights, Group Enables, Comments
How many levels of undo are available in LE?
Up to 32 levels of UNDO are available
What clears the undo queue?
Deleting Tracks, Closing Sessions, Quitting Pro-Tools, Destructive Recording, Certain File Management Functions (Saving Session DOES NOT clear the queue)
What are the main differences between Analog and Digital audio?
Analog is a smooth, continuous variation of air pressure; Digital is discrete measurements of air pressure at a pre determined number of snapshots
What is Sample Rate? Quantization?
Sample Rate is the number of amplitude snapshots taken per second
Quantization is the measurement of amplitude which is rounded to the nearest interval (causing ERRORS)
What is Quantization Error? At what amplitudes is it most significant?
The distortion caused by rounding an amplitude measurement up or down to the nearest quantization interval. It is most significant at lower amplitudes.
How many quantization intervals are present in 16-bit resolution? 20-bit? 24-bit?
16=65,536 quantization intervals
20=1,048,576 ” “
24=16,777,216 ” “
What is the theoretical dynamic range of 16-bit audio? 20-bit? 24-bit?
16= 96dB
20= 120dB
24= 144dB
What is another name for maximum digital level?
Full Scale (0dBFS….there are no numbers above 0dBFS)
What are the advantages of recording at a higher bit depth?
Greater potential Dynamic range
Greater effective resolution
Lowers the dynamic level of quantization errors
Greater headroom before clipping
What is dither? Does it counteract QE?
Dither is low level noise added to signal which DOES COUNTERACT QUANTIZATION ERROR
What does Nyquist’s Theorem state?
The sample rate must be at least twice the highest frequency to be accurately reproduced (example is a 10k tone must have a sample rate of 20k)
How many samples per period are in the Nyquist frequency?
2 samples per period (sample rate divided by 2 is Nyquist Frequency)
When is the anti-aliasing filter applied?
Used in Audio to Digital conversion to remove all frequencies above the Nyquist Frequency.
When is the anti-imaging filter applied?
Used in Digital to Audio conversion to remove high frequencies.
How do we determine bits per second?
The sample rate multiplied by the bit depth determines bits per second ( a 44.1 sample rate at a bit depth of 16 = 705,600 bits per second)
What is a voice? Do inactive tracks use voices?
A voice is an audio event, and a pathway to or from storage. Inactive audio tracks DO NOT use voices.
Do Pro-Tools Faders change levels recorded to the hard drive?
No, the source signal from an instrument or mic determines level of signal recorded.
Which monitoring mode monitors playback until you record?
Auto Input monitoring monitors playback of record enabled track until you are recording (input only monitoring monitors source input on record enabled tracks)
Which monitoring mode monitors playback until you record?
Auto Input monitoring monitors playback of record enabled track until you are recording (input only monitoring monitors source input on record enabled tracks)
Monitoring latency is the delay between what two things?
It is the delay between an input and the output through which it is monitored
Which recording mode is selection based?
Auto-Punch recording is selection based
What does destructive recording do?
It directly overwrites audio file, replacing original data on disk, and alters any regions that refer to that portion of the whole file region. CAN NOT BE UNDONE OR REVERSED
Quick-Punch recording uses how many voices on a mono track?
Uses 2 voices on mono, and 4 on stereo ( up to 200 running punches)
How long does a selection have to be to loop record?
Must be at least one second (records multiple passes of a selection)
What modifier key allows you to view all loop recorded takes?
Apple click with selector on region will show list of alternate takes/loops.
Can offline regions be edited or processed?
They may still be edited but not processed.
What is the minimum length of a fade be?
It must be at least 4 samples.
What 3 options are available when linking fades?
Equal Power: gives 3dB boost in amplitude at middle of fade.
Equal Gain: Linear fade in or out
None: disables the linking between the fade out and fade in curve
Mixing Definitions-
DAE- Digital Audio Engine
TDM-Time Division Multiplexing
Bus- Internal audio pathway
Send- Routes copy of signal to output or buss
Insert- Redirects signal to plug in or I/O
Pre Fader- Copy before fader affected by track fader or pan
Post Fader- copy sent after fader passing through track fader
What is a Plug in? Where can it be placed?
A plug-in is an application within an application, placed and created on insert and used for effects (gate, delay, etc.)
Can a track’s format be changed after it’s created? Output format?
The track format can not be changed, but the output format can.
Do aux tracks and master faders handle audio?
Aux inputs contain no audio data
How are mixer windows different from actual signal flow?
The mix window is the order of elements in a channel strip, not the flow of the actual signal
How much of a signal does an insert affect?
An insert affects 100% of a signal.
What is the difference between Dynamic and Time based processing and routing?
A dynamic processor is placed directly on the track’s insert, and a time based processor takes a copy of the signal, routed to an aux input, and places itself on the insert of that aux
What is the Target button within a plug-in?
It allows multiple plug-in windows to be viewed at once.
How are plug-ins moved and copied?
They may be dragged from insert to insert or track to track and may be copied by option dragging
What are the functions of bounce to disk? How, why and where?
Renders entire or partial mix to disk, Bounces a single output or buss,bounces selection in time line, bounces in real time only
What is the optimized audio protocol for Mac OSX? For Pro-Tools?
It is Core Audio for Mac OSX and DAE for Pro-Tools.
Can Pro Tools be run on non-Digi hardware?
No it can only use Digi hardware
What are 4 Plug in formats? What does Pro-Tools LE support?
VST, DirectX, AudioUnits,RTAS- Pro-Tools LE supports RTAS and AudioSuite
What is monitored in the Pro-Tools System Usage Window?
CPU activity, PCI Activity, and disk traffic
Should the Hardware Buffer size be raised to maximum for tracking?
No, the hardware buffer should be set as small as possible, which will create less delay
Monitoring latency is the delay between what two things?
It is the delay between an input and the output through which it’s monitored
Is AudioSuite File based? Is it destructive?
It is file based processing, that can either be destructive or non-destructive.
What 2 graphical places can an AudioSuite process be found?
Either in Playlist or Region List
How many MIDI tracks does Pro-Tools LE support?
Up to 256 MIDI tracks
What MIDI track views are available?
Track View, Regions View, Notes View, Velocity View, Controller View
Are MIDI regions stored in a session file?
Can MIDI Notes be edited in Regions view?
No individual notes may be edited in this view
What can the Grabber Tool do with MIDI?
It can be used to move, transpose, and trim
Which pencil will draw in a series of notes?
Draw in Notes
What does flatten performance do in Pro-Tools?
It locks the current state of selected notes and creates a new “restore to” state for specified note attributes
What does restore performance do?
It restores all selected MIDI notes to their original state.
How do you export MIDI out of Pro-Tools?
File-Export-MIDI…… Choose type