Francesca Lebrun
1756-1791. Compososer and famous soprano singer. Born in Mannheim, Germany, she died quite young. 
1756-1791. Late 18th century Viennese composer who toured Europe as a prodigy and worked his adult life in Salzburg and Vienna. He composed the magic flute, Don Giovanni, and many other comic operas.   
Franz Joseph Haydn
1732-1809. Mid to late-18th century composer who spent most of his career around Eisenstadt in the employment of the Esterhazy family. Experienced a great deal of success later in life in Vienna and especially London. 
A piece with four movements written for an orchestra. Kerman calls it “the crowning acheivement of Viennese Classical music.”

A chamber-music piece in several movements, typically for three main instruments plus continuo in the baroque period, and for only one or two instruments since then.


Rondo Form 
A form that returns to the original theme several times during a piece. The theme is interspersed with “episodes” or sections of constrasting musical content. 

The process of expanding themes and short motives into larger sections of music; the second (middle) section of a sonata-form movement, which features the development process. It heightens the tension by breaking up, recombining, reorchestrating, and extending the primary theme of the piece. 

Hire a custom writer who has experience.
It's time for you to submit amazing papers!

order now


A musical number in an opera, cantata, or oratorio that is sung by two or more people. Combines the forward narrative movement of recitative with the emotional reflection of aria

Don Giovanni
Opera written by Mozart about a lecherous man who meets an unpleasant end. 
String Quartet
a genre of music written for a small ensemble of string players. Equal in importance to the symphony in the Classical era, but intended mostly for private settings instead of public ones. an instrumental group consisting of two violins, viola, and cello; or a piece composed for this group; or the four players themselves. 

The third section of sonata-form movement. The last section of sonata form. It brings a return of the main themes and is played entirely in the tonic (home) key. 

Sonata Form 
A way of organizing music that is closely associated with the symphony. A form developed by the Classical composers and used in almost all the first movements of their symphonies, sonatas, etc.
Opera Buffa
Comedic Italian opera. Tended to use everyday people as the main characters. 
The opening section of sonata form that introduces the listener to main themes. The first section of a fugue.
A section of music that is linked to an idea, person, or thing in dramatic action; the transformation of the music can suggest dynamic change in whatever music it is linked to. Leading movement in wagner’s operas.
Program Music
Music that is written with a specific extra-musical story idea in mind; sometimes that idea is made explicit, as in Berlioz’s Fantastic Symphony; other times it is implied through a title (Like Romeo and Juliet or Faust). 
Romantic Orchestra 
Expanded to include more instruments, allowing for louder sounds as well as greater exploration of tone color through the combination of different instruments. 
A term used to describe a song that uses the same music for each stanza of poetry.
Symphonic Poem/Tone Poem
A single movement composition for orchestra that has a programmatic idea. 
A term that refers to the liberal use of all 12 notes of the western scale to create a rich harmonic texture. 
Beethoven Symphony No. 5
Symphony that embodies the idea of heroism in music; contains a 4-note motive that transforms from threatening and fateful in the first movement to joyous and triumphant in the last. 
The practice of slowing or speeding up the tempo at the performer’s discretion in order to create a more individual, expressive performance.;
Beethoven’s Late Period Works
Comprised of music that struck its original audience as bizarre; music doesn’t conform to traditional forms or ideas of consonance.
Romantic Recitative
Became increasingly melodic and expressive.
Public Concert Halls
First constructed in the late 18th century and 19th century; allowed greater access to music by the general public; led to a codification of “great” music that made it difficult for newer music to become mainstream.

A triple-meter dance movement that Beethoven often used in place of the minuet.;a form developed by Beethoven from the minuet to use for movements in larger compositions; later sometimes used alone, as by chopin.


German for song; also a special genre of romantic songs with piano.;An art song written for voice and piano that is usually fairly short; the text is often chosen from romantic poetry.;
The total work of art; and idea that prompted Wagner to take complete control of his musical dramas, from music to staging to action to libretto.;
Concert Overture
an early 19th-century; genre resembling an opera overture- but without any following opera.;a single movement composition for orchestra that has a programmatic idea and that grew from the tradition of performing a musical introduction to operas.;
Miniature Compositions;

Small pieces meant to explore a single mood, often intended for private performance, like Chopin’s nocturnes. a term for a short, evocative composition for piano or for piano and voice, composed in the romantic period.


Romantic Melody
Tends to be more expansive, emotional, and demonstrative than in previous eras.
A term used to describe the increasing tendency in the 19th century to use transformed or closely related thematic ideas in multi-movement works.
Thematic Unity
A term used to describe the increasing tendency in the 19th century to use transformed or closely related thematic ideas in multi-movement works. 
Robert Schumann 
1810-1856; From North Germany; composed primarily piano pieces until 1840, when he began to compose lieder (art songs), including the song cycle Dichterliebe.
1803-1869; originally trained as a doctor but shifted to composition; strong literary background with little experience playing orchestral instruments; active in paris; composed a good deal of programmatic music like Fantastic Symphony as well as operas like Les Troyens. 
Felix Mendelssohn
1809-1847; comes from upperclass banking family in North Germany; known for his conservative, more classical style; revived interest in Bach
1840-1893; Russian composer of symphonies and ballets, including the nutcracker, sleeping beauty, swan lake, and romeo and juliet. 
1813-1883; German compser of music dramas steeped in german folklore and myth; believed in Gesamtkunstwerk (total work of art); had special opera house built for the performance of his works in bayreuth; composed the Nibelung’s Ring, Tristan an Isolde, The Flying Dutchman, among others.;;
Clara Wieck
1819-1896; renowned pianist; married to robert schumann.;
1770-1827; Born in Bonn; moved to Vienna in 1792; generally regarded as the greatest composer; wrote 9 symphonies; deaf much of his life.;
1813-1901; successful opera composer from Milan; name became acronym for the Italian revolution; composed Aida, Don Carlos, La Traviata, among others
1810-1849; Born near waraw; spent much of his life in paris; wrote almost exclusively for the piano, including several nocturnes.;
1797-1828; from Vienna; wrote primarily lieder (art songs), including Erkling; father wanted him to be a schoolteacher.
1811-1886; spent his career first in paris, then in weimar, germany, known for “tone poems,” which are long, single-movement, programmatic pieces.
Fanny Mendelssohn
1805-1847; very gifted composer who seems to have kept her musical talents private because of gender expectations; sister of Felix.;