Where is the larynx located?
In the air passageway between the throat and the trachea
What is the source of vocal sounds?
The vibrating vocal folds
Describe the three factors that cause vocal fold vibration
The muscles and their contraction, the elasticity of the tissues, and the air pressure and the Bernoulli effect
What is the Bernoulli effect?
A principal of air pressure is the effect of air as it flows from a large space to a narrower space. Air pressure decreases as the air flows faster in the narrower space, causing suction in the narrower space.
How does the Bernoulli effect affect vocal fold vibration?
As air flows through the narrow space between the elastic vocal folds, the air flows faster, and air pressure is decreased. This causes a suction that pulls the vocal folds together. Then, air pressure builds up beneath the closed vocal folds, forcing them open. Again, the Bernoulli effect occurs, sucking the elastic folds together. This repetitive action causes vocal fold vibration.
Name the cartilages that form the framework of the larynx
Thyroid, cricoid, and the pair of arytenoids.
Name the cartilage that is solid in front, open in back, and shaped like a shield.
Name the cartilage that has a protruding notch called the Adam’s apple.
What is important about a synovial joint?
Permits more flexible movement than any other joint
Name the cartridges that are connected with a synovial joint
The thyroid is attached to the cricoid with a synovial joint

The two arytenoids are attached to the cricoid with synovial joints

Name the pair of cartilages that are located at the back of the larynx
The arytenoids
Both of the cartilages that are located at the back of the larynx have three pointed tips. Name the three tips.
The muscular process in back, the apex at the top, and the vocal process in front.
Name the cartilage that looks like a large leaf, and is suspended over the vocal folds
Where are the intrinsic muscles located?
Within the larynx
What is another name for the internal thyroarytenoid muscle?
The vocalis
Where is the vocal ligament located?
On the edge of the vocalis muscle, and attached to the notch (Adam’s apple) of the thyroid cartride in front, and the vocal process of the two arytenoid cartridges in back. It protects the edge of the vocalis.
Describe the conus elasticus
It is a strong membrane. Its top edge is the vocal ligament, and it hangs down like a smooth curtain, protecting the underneath side of the vocalis muscle.
Name and describe the two layers that cover the vocalis and the vocal ligament
The vocalis and the vocal ligament are covered by the Reinke space, which is a loose, fibrous component, and by the squamous epithelium, a muscus membrane.
Name the layers that make up the vocal folds
The vocalis muscle, the vocal ligament, a covering comprised of Reinke space and stratified squamous epithelium.
To which cartilages are the inter-arytenoid muscles attached?
The two arytenoid cartilages
Which muscles must contract to completely adduct (close) the vocal folds?
The inter-arytenoids, and the lateral cricoid arytenoids must contract to fully adduct the vocal folds. The external thyro-arytenoids also assist adduction.
What three actions cause the vocal folds to lengthen and stretch?
The crico-thyroid muscles contract, and the thyroid cartilage moves forward and down, and the cricoid moves up and back.
Define the term glottis
The space between the vocal folds
What causes a breathy sound?
Incomplete adduction
What kind of adduction causes harsh sound?
Tight adduction
Give the approximate length of the vocal folds?
? of an inch or less
Does increased breath pressure increase loudness?
Do longer stretched vocal folds produce lower or higher pitches?
Do shorter & thicker vocal folds produce lower sounds?
Are vocal sounds originated in the larynx?
The vocal folds act like a valve opening and closing the air passageway?
The superior horn of the thyroid attaches with a synovial joint to the cricoid?
The thyroid cartilage moves sideways?
The thyroid arytenoid muscle is made up of three parts?
Reinke space is significant for the professional sound?
The false vocal folds move to create vocal tone?
The crico-thyroid muscles and the vocalis muscle pull against each other in a tug-of-war to control the thickness, length, & tension of the vocal folds?
Singers use decreased breath pressure to lower pitch?
Abduction is the process of closing the vocal folds?
As the edges of the vocal folds change length tension and thickness the air molecules are vibrated in many different ways?
The external thyroid arytenoid muscle fills in the space between the walls of the thyroid and the vocalis muscle?
Does the lateral or the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles cause the arytenoid cartilages to pivot the vocal process to the center of the larynx?
The lateral