Compression
 A slight pressurization of air molecules.
 Rarefaction
 a depressurization of air molecules.
 Period
 One full cycle of vibrations (compressions and rarefaction)
 Aperiodic
 Multiple, irregular periods. Periods are of random duration and therefore do not create an identifiable pitch.
 Sinewave
 A type of graph, a center line represents equilibrium, that is of zero pressure. anything above the line is compression, anything below the line is rarefaction.
 Frequency
 the number of periods that occur each second within a sound wave.
 Hertz
 the derived SI unit of frequency; the frequency of a periodic phenomenon that has a periodic time of 1 second; 1 cycle per second
 Wavelength
 The spacial separation between each compression/compression wave. usually indicated with the greek symbol Lambda.
 Properties of Short Wavelengths
 Travel in straight lines if they encounter an obstacle in their path, they will be reflected in another direction.
 Properties of Long wavelengths
 Less directional and tend to bend around obstacles and continue on their original path.
 Amplitute
 the magnitude of the compression’s and rarefaction’s within a sound wave. The most common unit of measurement is the decibel, abbreviated dB.
 Decibles
 the dB scale is logarithmic, allowing large changes in amplitude to be indicated by relatively small numerical changes.
 Spectral Envelope
 A visual graph of timbre. Indicate the strength of harmonics. (a signature sound of a unique timbre)
 Spectral Slope
 The rate at which harmonics diminish in amplitude as they rise in frequency.
 Fundamental frequency
 The lowest frequency in a complex wave. Musical pitch is determined by this.
 harmonic Series
 the series of twelve harmaonics. Can only be present in the following intervallic patterns in ascending order. unison, octave, perfect fifth, perfect fourth, major third, minor third, minor third, major second, major second, major second major second, and minor second.
 Harmonic Overtones
 Whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency, fundamental is the first.
 Inharmonic Overtones
 Inharmonic overtones are not whole number multiples of the fundamental
 Timbre
 is the result of the unique pattern of overtones present in each musical sound All instruments and voices produce a fundamental frequency and overtones.
 Power Spectrum
 Represents timbre, acoustic analysis of a sound.
 Source/filter theory? (linear only)
 The word source refers to the periodic (having frequency) sound generated by the oscillating vocal folds. the word filter refers to the resonators and articulators of the vocal tract.
 Resonance Peak
 Peaks that represent areas of resonance.
 Resonance Trough
 are places where sound is attenuated on a spectral envelope.
 Formant
 The resonance peaks of the vocal tract that result in vowels and other changes in timbre are called formants. A formant is a resonance of the vocal tract.
 Vowel Formants
 A specific timbre or spectral envelope- an acoustic signature, so to speak, the spectrum will always be about the same.
 Cardinal Vowel
 I-E-A-0-U Typical formant frequencies are cited for men and women, These figures are averages for speech, sung vowels almost always will be somewhat different.
 Formant Regions
 The range at which the formants are best resonant.
 Formant Tuning
 the changing of a specific formant to adapt it for its certain situation.
 Singer’s Formant
 Produced by clustering the third, fourth and fifth vocal tract formants tightly together within a narrow frequency range. Gives extra amplification to harmonics in the frequency range of approximately 2,400Hz-3200Hz
 Mode 1
 includes chest voice, operatic head voice and voce finta in men, and chest voice and heavy belting in women. The vocal folds are thickened by contraction of the TA muscles, resulting in greater mass per unit of length and a square-shaped glottis when viewed in frontal cross section. (Amplitude of vibration is high)
 Mode 2
 Falsetto in men, and head voice in women. Pitch modulation relies more heavily on contraction of the cricothyroid muscles which simultaneously elongate and thin the vocal folds. The glottis assumes a triangular shape in cross section with a narrow area of vocal fold contract during phonation. Amplitude of vibration is low.
 Belting
 Mode 1 is the glottal source and resonance is tuned to avoid obvious violations of register. in belting the balance is almost completely shifted to the chiaro side with a bright, brassy timbre, Spectral analysis reveals strong harmonic overtones. Very different from the classical ideal.
 Falsetto
 controversial, loud well supported mode 2 production with efficient glottal closure. others think it is a light, easy voice production that can serve as a bridge into the upper extension and mode 1 vibration.
 Resonance
 The intensification(enhancement) and enriching(Change in timbre) of a musical tone by supplementary vibration.
 Forced Resonance
 for string instruments, requires direct mechanical connection of the vibrator to the resonator.
 Free Resonance
 (human voice)The vibrations of air molecules and reflections of sound waves within a void
 Zero Crossing
 the first peak of compression also known as null pressure found at 1/4 lambda and 3/4 lambda.
 forced resonator
 mechanism that is caused to vibrate
 Free resonator
 the structure must be hollow, have volume, and have an opening through which sound waves can exit.
 Quarter-wave resonator
 (Woodwinds)have multiple resonance frequencies and allows for different pitches.
 Resonance series
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 Standing wave
 when two opposing waves combine.
 Destructive interferance
 two waves super imposed to form a resultant wave of greater or lower amplitude, (usually waves are from the same source, or have nearly the same frequency)
 Resonance Frequency
 how often resonance occurs, The formula is. Length of resonator tube(divided by) the time it takes for a cycle.
 Primo Passaggio: Male & Female
 Primo is first female: between c4 and A4 mode 2 replaces mode 1 and women modify vowels to closed position. Male: Non event, f3 to c4 and the larynx is likely to elevate.
 Secondo Passaggio Male & Female
 Second passage- Male: c4 and a4 pitches lying beyond this point are said to be in the operatic head voice or upper extension.pitches below, within, and above these transition zones have one thing in common they share Mode 1 as their glottal source. Female: E5 to A5- breath support must be carefully modulated to avoid excess subglottal pressure.
 F1/2F0 lock or register voilation
 Drop your jaw, move from one to the next.
 Whistle
 Flageolet of a woman’s voice, very high pitched, not pleasant to ear, used to perfect the woman’s high notes.