Milton Babbitt
Philadelphia-born leading composer/theorist in the United States. Wrote article called musician of specialist: talks about being a vanity musician in accords with vanity press and is involved with electronic music.
and worked with RCA Mark II Synthesizer.
style: serial.

works: 3comps. for piano. (serialism to duration)

total serialism
AKA . serializing of pitch, duration, intensities, timbres.
organization of pitches and other element or elements of music (such as rhythm dyanmics timbre register etc). practiced by boulez, stockhausen,babbitt. This means they are controlling many parts of the music. It had Wide spread influence in post war music in w. germany summer courses(not nazi side) , ,an an anti-nazi/antifascist people who would just like anything that the nazis shunned. serialism composers include: stravinksy, copland, barber, and ginastera,schoenberg, webern. The reason somepeople used it: no nationalism connotations, *****
the philosophy of serialists: worked alone, went in a new direction, had individual personality/style, and used serialism in their OWN way.
row that controlled: pitches, dynamics, articulation and so on. practiced by boulez, stockhausen babbitt. example of this technique is Structures by boulez!!!!
Pierre Boulez
taught by Messaien.
style: changed towards more flexibility and exprressivity. attributed total serialism(included with pitch and duration, no percieved themes, unique rhytmic pulse, climax progression, and unpredictable sequence of events, long melodic lines, frequent unisons, repeated pitches.

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works: Structures, Bourreaux de solitude.

Karlheinz Stockhausen
Cologne, Germany modernist.
taught: Messaien & his piece of Mode de valeurs.

style: pointillism, total serialism, rotation, electronic music, used indeterminacy, uses moment form(contasting units occur w/o warning)
works: kreuzspeiel, kontakte, kontra-punkte, klaierstick XI.

pierre schaeffer
Fr. sound engineer
projs: and he had a concert of noises(de bruits)
style: made collages from recorded natural sound(musique concrete)
work: Pierre Henry on Symphonie pour un homme seul (using the tool of tape recorder), etude aux chemin du fer.etude aux casseroles(casseroles)
musique concrete
done by pierre schaeffer in paris. –term coined by composers working in Paris in the 1940s for music composed by assembling and manipulating recorded sounds, working “concretley” rather than with music notation”. Done by Schaeffer in Chemins de fer.
TAPE music.
the instrum: invented in 1935 made by german and was combined with recording machines. It became widely available in 1950. It could literally be moved and newly placed.Terrry Riley used it for IN C.
electronische musik
occured west german radio in cologne. It dealt with artificially produced sounds. This was modified through electronic means. music based on sounds that are produced sidered the pure form of sound. This was associated with Karlheinz Stockhausen with Studie 1 and studie 2. He had rows(pitch, rhythm, range, timbre). It allowed COMPLETE CONTROL. Graphic notation. he used sin waves without overtones but could make it artificially. ELECTRONIC: ARTIFICIAL SOUND VS. NATURAL WORD OF CONCRETE MUSIC*******

example with music concrete and electronische musik.
WAS Gesang der Junglinge( song of youth):
-used boy singing(musique concrete), combined with ectronically generated sounds, five speakers). musical char: Sounds bubbly water, and distant children, coding, haunting children, sony uploading, solo violin on a bleak morning, bartok children chanting but in german.
(uses synthetic sounds) Heard in varese’s poeme elecrtronique

krzysztof penderecki(phonetic: penderet-ski)
polish composer born in 1933.
style: evolved from micropolyphony to neoromanticism.
char: timing out in seconds, indeterminacy, extending bowing techniques, sustained tones, quarter tone clusters, glissandos.
works: St. Luke Passion, devils of loudon. threnody.
gyorgy Ligeti
hungarian composer. reached1950s/1960s stardom through kubrick’s sci fi space
odysssey with atmospheres, reqiuem and lux aeterna.
characteristics: uses micropolyphony canons, shepard risset glissando, no clear form, with chromatic tones, stays in constant motion but remains harmonically and melodally.
works: kubrick’s sci fi space
odysssey(stardom gamechanger) with atmospheres, reqiuem and lux aeterna.
canons with many lines moving at different rates to create a mass of sound slowly moving through space. ex. he uses it in atmospheres(extramusically represents lights/clouds), ligeti.
an approach to musical composition that focuses on the characteristics and qualities of sound—timbre, texture, articulation, dynamics, and movement—to create form. This is used in Threnody to represent the Victims of Hiroshima along with legiti’s Etude, Vertigo.
peter maxwell davies
used chant/English Renaissance music. he would distort or transform it ins tuff like Taverner, opera(the life of a renaissance composer-in nomine” and giving it in it’s full at end”)
karel husa
from prague, czech. studied in paris and emigrated to the us to teach at cornell after the war. where prague was the capital.
heard about the invasion of war and wrote about Music for prague.
genres: wind music.
styles: uses cumulative form/developing variation.
steve reich
NYC jewish born touring/performing composer.
style: progressed from avant garde, minimalist, to postminimalist. uses phasing,obsessive repetition(minimalist), percussive(like african drumming), diatonic and rapid steady pulsation, irregular meters(tehillim)
musical philosophy: focused on steady change.
works out: come out to show them, piano phase, tehillim. the cave, diff. trains.
done in come out to show them, steve recih. tape loops are superimposed in a spoken phrase so that the the one loop was slightly shorter and moved ahead of the other.slightly phasing. used by steve reich.
post 1980 music of reich. term used when a piece uses the application of minimalist techniques but moving past the aestheic with traditional methods(in tehillim such as canon/harmonic motion) varied material, and renewed expressivity. ex. Diff. trains, the cave.

uses techniques of minimaliusm in combination with traditional methods(like canon and harmonhy, more varied material and greater expressivity. Practiced by Reich. Seen in his pieces Different trains(holocaust subject) the cave(religion exploration)

Phlip Glass
schooling: univ.of chi/julliard-nadia boulanger
job: Ravi Shankar, Fr. (indian sitarist)
style: indian-influenced—melodiousness,consonant, simple harmonic progression as found in rock. layered ostinatos, rapid orches. , tonal/modal hamronies on top of typical orchestra
genres: operas, symphonies, concertos, and film scores.
WORKS: 20+by graduation.
John adams
American(mass) living composer.
Progressed from minimalism to a postminimalist(minimalist techniques+other approaches),
works: Phrygian Gates(24 min of repetitive diatonic figurations, full of gates and landscapes, example of minimalist style), Harmonielehre(symphonis suite) , Nixon in China( about China with communist regime uses baroque operatic style and minimalism), Short Ride in a Fast Machine(orchestralfanfare), transmiguration of souls, doctor atomic, el nino.

main characteristics: modality, repeated figures, certain pitch collections and combines counterpoint/harmony with minimimalist techniques, agetes and landscapes(shifting of music’s character)

characterized by drones, repetitions, gradual process ofchange,simplicit
gyorgy Ligeti(with diaresis on o)
Hungarian(like Liszt and bartok)
training: franz Liszt Academy
travels: Emigrting to Austria after Hungarain Revo 1956.
influenced by : Bartok.
style:uses micropolyphony
used shepard Tone(shepard-risset Glissando)
Works: piano etudes.

style: dissonant chords changing, uses virtuoso tradition. uses micro polyphoni
works:piano etude(vertige)

ellen taafe zwilich
birthplace: 1939 West Virginia.
training: came in FSU/Julliard
teacher: Elliot carter/Roger Sessions
awards: first woman to win pulitzer prize in music. , National Endowment for the Arts Gugghenheim Fellowship,
style:developing variation(like schoenberg) except she uses simple textures,
works:symphony no1
arvo part
Estonian composer(1935) Nickname: Holy Minimalist.
char: used tintinnabuli(bell like sonorities), with pitch centered
had interest in gregorian chant/early polyphony ,and radical simplification.

birthplace: Estonian(part of soviet union) -1935.
, tintinnabuli(bell)-called RADICAL SIMPLIFICATION, characterized by pitch centered, alternating between dissonance, consonances, dramatic climaxes within this pitch centered style.

works: 7 magnificat antiphones.

tintinabuli(“bell”-sound effect”)
in this technique, one voice presents a diatonic melody that generaly moves by step around a central pitch and the other voices sound notes of the tonic triad that are determine by a preset system. done in arvo part’s 7 magnficat antiphons used in vesper’s service.
style of polyphony close voices like atmospheres. characterized by large score, tiny font and many different lines.
michael daugherty
Iowa born amer. comp.
personality: played jazz/rock as teen.
schooling: Yale/ircam
teachers: included G.ligeti(hamburg)
style: modernism is mixed with pop music(elvis/ latin jazz)elements with great contrast, quoting chant and berlioz.
work: daugherty, dead elvis(1993),Metropolis Symphony, Bizarro, Jack O.
it is in opposition to modernism.
turning away the belief that history progresses irreversibly. It abandons the notion that music develop. They thing that history gives the artist more freedom than that;
book definition: the styles of all epochs, and cultures are equally available as musical material.
here subjectivity>objectivity, Relativism instead one single reason. and Skepticism of science/technology rather than science and technology. Rejection of grand Narrations–philosophies/ideologies such as communism.
trends include use of quotation/collage.
–postmodern themes: maximum amount of people, functional, living as efficient as possible, within rationality also seen by Michael gregg’s engineering building(different geometric, circular windows, rectangles pillars, differnt materials which is not too rational which is made to look like an engine) with fun and whimsiness.
ex. luciano berio’s quoted material(mahler, bach, beet, boulez, berg, berlioz, brhams, debussy, heindemith, mravel, schoenberg, stockhuassen strauss, stravinksy, webern—(he connects water, dance) example of a musical collage with juxtaposition(no transition). which was dedicated to bernstein—-

trend in twentieth century
it blurs the boundaries between high and popular art

Alfred Schnittke
job: worked for USSr
influence: serial chance and elecrronic music.

style: film music, serial, chance, electronic, polystylism(quoted)~~where he uses cross centuries and traditions.

a combination of new and older styles created through quotation or stylistic allusion, coined by Alfred Schnittke. Heard in his Concerto Grosso with Baroque Vivaldi concertos, versus polytonality, and 12-tone music.
bright sheng
Shanghai, China-born, 1955
scholing: shanghai conserv. during cultural revo. travels: moved to New York.
influence: asian/western(china and new york just like bartok with folk and classical.
-visually can be seen in architecture, pruitt-igoe project, kansas city(housing complex that looks like “projects”)-
luciano berio
Italian born composer who
style: rapid gestures, sudden changes of register, and dynamic level, virtuosity.
works: sequenza, sinfonia,

works: wrote symphony called sinfonia. Here he combines really complicated sequenza III to jazz with baroque.

toru takemitsu
Tokyo born self-taught composer.
values: he disassociated because of World War 2 but reconnected with country due to music.
influence: Amer/euro composers.
conflicts: lived through pacific war, us occupation of japan.
Requiuem for Strings ( heard by stravinksy)
filmscores(kwaidan-stories, first time experiment japanese instrum(shakuhachi & biwa) providing basis.
-wrote filmscore, ran.
wrote november steps(
-commisioned piece by ny phil’s 125anniversary. he accepted the different meaning
on the same program for berio, sinfonia-included bernstein., stockhausen-hymnen(collage of national anhtmes, & nov. steps

style: first wrote for wrote for western with european style, then he starkly shows the differences of Japanese and Western Music,

it is a pear shaped lute from the 7th century. technique of playing of the instruments means bending the strings along its tall bridge. It is used in Toru Takemitsu’s November Steps. He unconventionally layered this asian instrument with a Western Orchesttra.
sound quality: very metallic, with acoustical echo but no vibration.
bright sheng
born in Shanghai(cosmopolitan-mostly occupied by W. Powers)
during ccultural revo(1966-1976) and was sent to qinghai. was a part of troupe.
studied: Queens NY
teaching: michigan.

style: fusion of east & west traditions
works: hun laceration
the song of a majnun-opera based on

—tried to maintain sophsication, contrapuntal, -westernization.

influenced: hoped to best features of both cultures.
he hoped to use best of both world on sheng. He was into fusion while takemitsu wanted juxtaposition.

Seasons from 7 tunes heard in china- after bach’s cello suite

simplification of materials: rhythm, incessant repetition, with minute changes. This is found in Einstein on the Beach where a cycle of sung numbers, spoken words, and electronic keyboard is repeated often.
one part moves sightly off of each other. here, one loop is slight shorter thus gradually moves ahead of the other. This is in Steve Reich’s piano phases, Come out, and Tehillim?
extended techniques
practiced by Luciano Berio’s sequenza III which involved chuckles, notes sang on ipa and intermittent words.
Extended technique is a term used in music to describe unconventional, unorthodox, or non-traditional methods of singing or of playing musical instruments employed to obtain unusual sounds or timbres.
It is also used George Crumb’s Black angels, where the means of bowing is unusual: striking strings near the pegs.
bamboo flute with was used as a soloist in Takemitsu’s November Steps, a Jap. instrum. on top of a Western orchestra.
tape loops
segment of magnetic recording tape spliced to form a loop that can run continuously through a tape recorder and thus play the recorded sounds repeatedly. This was used in Pierre Boulez’s etude aux chemins de fer with train sounds. it’s also used on steve reich’s come out to show them combined with phasing.
Shepard risset glissando
used in Gyorgy Ligeti’s Vertigo piece.
Jean-Claude Risset subsequently created a version of the scale where the tones glide continuously, and it is appropriately called the continuous Risset scale or Shepard–Risset glissando. When done correctly, the tone appears to rise (or descend) continuously in pitch, yet return to its starting note.
george crumb
Americ. W. Virginian Composer. style: known for coaxing new sounds out of ordinary instrums/objects(like piano pitch bending, thread pape being applied to harp strings, and the mandolins being a quater-tone flat purposefully.juxtaposing of material, different bowing, hence it utlizes Extended techniques.
philosophy: always have musical purpose.
known for juxtaposition/variation.
char: involves,
works: E. String Quartet, Black Angels, Ancient Voice s of children.