NAWM 190. Karlheinz Stockhausen,
Kreuzspiel: Part 1, chamber work

Karlheinz Stockhausen’s Kreuzspiel (Cross-play) (1951), while not the composer’s earliest acknowledged composition, corresponds to Stockhausen’s Op. 1 and is listed in his catalog as “1/7,” 7 denoting a revision made in the late 1950s. Kreuzspiel was influenced by two works Stockhausen heard at Darmstadt in the summer of 1951: Olivier Messiaen’s Mode de valeurs et d’intensites from Quatre etudes de rythme for piano (1949 – 50) and Karel Goeyvaerts’ Sonata for Two Pianos (1950 – 51). Messiaen’s work is today recognized as a prototype of integral serialism and “pointillist” music, in which each note has dynamic, articulative, and registral properties assigned to it without direct relation to adjacent notes–an extreme form of Webern’s and Schoenberg’s “tone-color melody.” Kreuzspiel is about ten minutes in duration and is scored for **oboe, bass clarinet, piano, and percussion.**h Stockhausen applies highly audible gestural structures, the details of which (duration, pitch, intensity/dynamics) are determined by serial procedures.
unusual combination of instruments.
-pitched instruments
musical characteristics: has pitch row permuted through a complex process of rotation, in whcih notes are shifted from the end of the rows o the MIDDLE TO create a so on. EAch row forms is stated once only. Each chromatic scale is linked to DURATION/DYNAMIC. This results rows of duration, dynamics that permute into things called pitch rows. haf of the notes belong to a low register while the other half belongs to the high register. musical characteristics: Toms, pitch instruments(clairnet,oboe, piano) Tumbas was determined serially with 2, 8 , 7 and such. He had 14 rows(read carefully).

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musical characters: pointillistic texture yhat voice crosses.
musical charactristics:
Hear african drum, abruptness, chacarera aura, high range of piano or extremely low range of piano. reed instrument comes out of no where. clarinet sounds(deeper) intense drum rhythm.
how it looks: measured in seconds, no weird techniques yet, just klavier largely spaced for pointillism, uses tom tom, and woodblock, specific dynamic marking, insisistent trills, and n ew things to explore each measure, no minimalist repeated.

NAWM 191. Pierre Boulez, Le marteau sans maitre: VI, “Bourreaux de solitude,” song cycle**** ABOUT: the hammer without the master Musical characteristics: unusual combination of instruments(page 573) -has flute, xylorimba, maraca, guitar, and ALTO VOICE(WOMAN)and viola. -serial organziation of pitch, duration and dynamics. -a song cycle after Schoenberg’s Pierrot -beyond analysis?-absolute, -webern like, ABOUT: (SURREALIST TEXT) . Hangmen of solitude The step has gone away, the walker has fallen silent On the dial of Imitation The Pendulum throws its instinctive load of granite.— ***musical char: pointillist, serial, sensitive text realization. gamelan music elements vocal line has sprechstimme, wide intervals, glissandos), unable to analyze, k, prelude/postlude go through 12 chromatic notes and also through the durations dynamics, and timbres boulez employs. middle section of piece: thin texture, long melodic lines, and frequent unisons, instruments and voice match pitch occasionally. **** about: rene char cycle of surrealist poetry based on pierrot lunairerealized teh text in different ways in different movements.
—how it looks: has italian markings, however it has guitar with maraca xylophone and flute.fermatas in random spots, uses crescendos and crescendos, has french text, has trilled maracas in the middle. Hases xylophone with specfic sfzando marking. done with total serialism with each measure being radically different.
—-about: for a donaueschingen festival but dedicated to Hans Rosbaud(the conductor)
char: dark quality, row is used for dynamics. includes twelve tone saturationa nd is set up like pierrot lunaire. Actually writes rests in. Includes triangles and plus signs. non sensical text.
NAWM 192. Luciano Berio, Sequenza III, solo for female voice
-sequence refers to harmonic fields that can be explored throughout the piece.
—s 4 different ways of writing text: ipa, consonants to be grouped, regualar words, where some words are lined on top of each other in a random and slightly discontinuous way. has coding of l, glottal stop, tril, railroad tracks,open circles and such for the different timbres. and scuh
abou: ha

this has 2 to 3 lines, it has the ipa to follow it shows when to speak and what not, it tells the personalities needed: wistful and such. Uses extended techniques.

NAWM 193. George Crumb, Black Angels: Thirteen Images from the Dark Land: Images 4 and 5, electric string quartet
written char.: the blank spaces represents rests!!! everyone looks at one score, very large score format.

musical characteristics. must play maracas. . ‘
comically outrageous. sounds like fiddler and threnody inspired but not as high and annoying. it has two notes sounding at once. Sounds like portals. includes small use of dies irae music.
pedal tones are produced by moving bow very slowly while exerting great pressure. Since various partials are obtainable, the payer should clculate carefully distance from bridge and bow pressure.
-has pizzicato, metallic sound
sul ponticello(as close to t bridge)
col legno: play with the wood of the bow(makes brittle sound)
-it asks for the person to play marimba, and other percussion instruments.
other requirements for string quartet: voice, hungarian, chinese, japanese, whistling,

–string orchestra perhaps. involves what symbols mean. —
uses quotations dies irae and the danse macabre (saint saens) —the dark morbidness. He contrasts lucky and unlucky numbers with 7 and 13. He even uses intervals, meters based off of these numbers.
about: it has extramusical associations as well. This is reactions to The vietnam conflict, the social unrest in the Uited States and the horrors of war.

how it looks:
complete rests for places where the instruments doesn’t play. extended techniques, crazy slashes, text is english. look like lunaire pizzicato markings. staircase of a rocky mountian in one spot. beat equivocations. the use of 7 and 13. has E. Vln for the ELECTRIC STRING QUARTET.

RL 13. Pierre Schaeffer, Etude aux chemins de fer, tape music
process: he manipulated collage/montage/ of railway sounds. and he could create loops.
NAWM 194. Milton Babbitt, Philomel, Section I, monodrama for soprano, recorded soprano, and synthesized sound
musical chara:
****5 staves and 3 groupings. (tape-recorded sop, voice(live performer), synth. sound(tape).
-sounds like the sound dogs here, like the beggining of HBO’s crashbox, mixture of 2 sequenza’s with synthesized sound on top of it.

musical anthology notes: uses chromatic saturation(all 12 at once), position of e migrates like stockhausen’s rows.
about: -setting of a poem by john holland base don Ovid’s Metamorphoses based on greek mythology and talks how people were turned into animals.


tereus is married procne. Philomela is sister of procne.
tereus goes to philomela to bring her to see her sister procne.
tereus rapes phiomela and then cuts her tongue out to stop her from sayin anything.
she weaves the story of the rape and her sister discovers it.
She discovers and feed the children to tereus. .
Nightingale: sings though she coudn’t speak when alive.

ee with multiple meter. layered over recoded voice written out. always have triple equivocations and septuplet equivocations. two systems per page. turns into words about tears, ephemeral, philomel. spots for interludes. specific dynamics from pi to mp to eight rests 32nd rests. quarter rests.

NAWM 195. Krzysztof Penderecki, Threnody: To the Victims of Hiroshima, tone poem for strig orchestra.
music char: includes 24 violins, 10 violas 10 cellos, 8 contrabasses,
You must count in seconds to play.
with key for directions. highest notes are played which equates different notes.
w/ violent effect. uses different rate of vibrato. sounded like spiders and sound masses reach glissandos. unisons start and th he asks for 8 a rticulation techniques at then leave. sounds like something off of saw right before death. with screaming in the background. this is the music you hear when somebody like jason comes face to face with you. crescendos at these low and high levels. finally reach a unison. Middle passage: playing each other’s music in canon(traditional technique. eheighest speed. (question to self?: How
the triangle mean: includes sonorism

uses graphic notation:
exploration of new sounds, indeterminacy.
about: first bomb of atomich warefare.
Screaming, airplanes, graphic notation looks like bombs. gives a more complicated view. originally to be called 837. has much subdivision of orchestra.
-they could use the order of what they play, and allowed them to hit top of their page which would be different for each person. Conductor uses indeterminacy by saying how long each section can be. this was borrowed from john cage and morton feldman.
what doe sit look life: 4 members of string quartet but with a lot on each 24 violins 10 violes and so on. measured in seconds rather than notated out. explores extended techniques with pizz. arco. lbatt. arco after each other. many many many many different liensno for each member of the quartet. big black blocks of sound. no rests are written in. includes glissandos with black lines under it. uses microtonality.

about: was originally going to be called 8 :37 but changed mind.

done at warsaw autumn was a music festival that he used to listen to American/POlish people could listen to each other so this is how he was introduced to morton feldman and cage.

NAWM 196. Karel Husa, Music for Prague 1968: I, Intro. and Fanfare, Adagio-Allegro, concert band suite
for chaos it does the following: with crazy piccolo line. large crescendo of sound. constant sextuplets? which eventually starts with the entrance of someone with percussion ushering them in. pretty high adagio picolo line to end it as well as begin it.
single high pitch sounded like a wake up call. fluttering of birds, sounds very pastoral yet ominous/haunting. sounds like a film score to an adventure through the woods. Sounds similar to fawn music.
musical char: pg668, has the anthem in distortion, and uses that small thing to create a figure, and then augments it to make a tetrachord tone row. does head-on brass dissonance. the chorale comes in its full form on page something58. and at measure 94.

exercise to do: Listen for theme
includes a hussite chorale tune
is a composition for wind ensemble.

includes tabor.
hussite chorale: you who are god’s warriors(nationalism symbol), and also tabor from ma vlast.

marked adagio, high piccolo part. large amount parts. includes timpani, has trumpets, and saxes, and alto clarinets.
Use of theme of Music for prague:
Timpani presents four note motive
then piccolo solo(expands the motive)
trumpet comes with it on the fanfare
does a full statement
and does a cumulative form.

headless stems: mean to play as fast as possbile which is quite similar to threnody.
composed in response to Soviet union’s invasion into Czech in 1968
music represents the crazy chaos.
What does it look like: piccolo line, soaxes are included, and definitely horns, more brasss heavy,incluees timpani, seems like everyone comes in when they want to, clarinet soars aboe as 2 or 3 intruments join in. as hyperprism. has homophonic trumpet line. purposefully dissonant chords, markings in ital, muted trumpet, adagio marking, 1 system on each page, specifically says press down easily.

RL 18. Philip Glass, Einstein on the Beach: Act III, sc. 1 Trial Two/Prison, opera
Einsteim on the beach, philip glass
opera done around stage sets.
includes walking and burshing of teeth.

Robert Wilson-librettist,dancer,and choreographer
no sung texts
no narrative. .
intoned numbers
spoken bits of poetry.

1 act opera for 4 1/2 hours.
-repetitive arpeggiation(consonance)
slow rate of change
forces: keyboard, woodwinds,violin(einstein played it)
philip glass called him a genius of time. We already know einstein’s story before entering theatre(pacifist contributed to splitting of atom)
sounds electronic music, pop, musical, includes writing on the board, mimed driving, spins,

response: wider acclaim.

about: 4 hours but yet one act premiered at the Met w/ Rob. Wilson.
char: arpeggiated triads, with forces of : elec. keyboard, woodwinds, adn solo violinsit.

NAWM 197. Steve Reich, Tehillim: Part IV, for four solo voices and ensembhasle
looks like: phasing. repetitive. uses hebrew, includes voices, with oboe also
includes triangles and lines. just alternates between multiple compound meters, includes to organs, and maracs,
sounds like: phasing.

about: in minimalist style.

reich bio: liked african drumming,
about: text is in hebrew(embracing judaism0
-praise to god
-praise him with drum, dance, strings, winds, cymbals
-engages with text.

char: jumpy rhythm, joyous sound, meter changes. long melody.

written in postminimalism era
-use of chordal harmonies
-use of written out canons
-irregular meters.
-expressive setting of words.

-text setting in a traditional sense.

Increased Complexity
-lengthy melody
-constant shift in meter
-elaborate formal structure.
char: -canon is disguised as looping

about: has Hebrew Psalm text

char: 4 singers, anorchestra.
has rhythmic/melodic @ the unison(duh-diatonic) with changing METERS.
PULSING percussion(his style)
diatonic/dissonant harmonies.when peaks happen out of time, it has the essence of phasing.

char: sounds like a choir number for a pbs special about different cultures in the African and Hebrews speaking countries.

NAWM 198. John Adams, Short Ride in a Fast Machine, orchestral fanfare
JOHN , short ride on fast machine.
about: exciting
uses landscape and gates which is like doppler effect
trombones, bassoons horns: gates
bea: pitch collection.

char: , regular driving plse(wooden block) layering of different ostinato pattern, constant and rapid textural shifts, harmonic motion throughchanges in pitch collection
clarinets is written like phasing.
-includes added F#(m10), c in (m13), g(m14) —these are the landscapes.

gates that comes from electronic music that involves switching to different pitch collections suddenly.

char: sound like fanfare.

landscape-dea, plus f sharp c, and g

gates dea ostinato, e gsharp b trombone
char: ostinatos,repeated chords, wide ranging melodies, 3 part counterpoint over pulsing harmonies. and definitely insistent percussion sound which sounds like a metronome.

looks like: begins with clarinet insistent line(vivaldian like leaps) sextuplets are used. insistent percussion rhythm in middle of page. trumpets has martial rhythms, even quarters. 22 lines for the orchestra. Someone is always keeping the beat. includes percussionary trills. switches from 34 to 2/2. ends piece with SFFF. always has someone holding legato half note line while someoe does 8ths, or martial tempos
sound like: soaring winds.

NAWM 199. Gyorgy Ligeti, Etude: No. 9, “Vertige” (

char:chromatic scale segments and make chordal sonorities that enter quickly. He uses interval, range, dynamics overlays melody/chords and re reptition(munimalism)
char: virtuosic multiple chromatic descending lines enter quickingly. sounds like bumblebee uses MICROPOLYPHONy and uses Shepard Risset Glissando Visualization(sound reaches downward but never reaching the bottom) that never seems to end, hence vertigo title.
structure: melodic line emerges as another layer.
about: gets electronic music overalp from Jen caude Risset(gradual/infinite descension/ascension). described as dramatic, expressive and comprehensible.
romantic element: helps you learn descending.

looks like: layered canon of chromatic tones on downward straigh pinao only, includes small dynamic markings and additional flats from teh million already there. a couple of sharps. encourages melody emphasis. ends with pian-issi x8. Exampl of polyphony incessantly where it stays within its range to a certain point before transitioning.

NAWM 200. Ellen Taaffee Zwilich, Symphony No. 1: I )

Romantic expressvity: traidtional orchestra with expanded,woodwinds, familiar sounds (lack of extended techniques), expressive melodic gestures in the strings with slow opening leading to it. Grandiose gestures reminiscent of MAHLER/STRAUSS(YOU RIGHT!) uses pc sets. m3 is answered by Perfect 5th(based on (0 14) also found in Nacht.


char: al material comes through developing variation from initial minor third. thirds are used for dissonance.
structure: 3xrising third w/ accel(motive) that transforms with tempo dynamics, and density. +allegro section that slows back down.

about: gives intellectual and emotional satisfaction.
char: sounds like the night before christmas halloween like special where we are going into dark alleys discovering zombies with highly dissonant chords. It reminds us of Varese(pace of change) yet she actually uses the STRINGS of a standard orchestra(19th century romanticism).
Stravinsky said that he moved away from strings that were too “EMOTIONAL.”
Not like -won first pulitzer pirze for music.
char:uses modernisic atonal and romantic expressivity.
char: just as persistent/dramatic as berlioz’s and seems a bit like a scaffold march.
looks like: handwritten, m3 harmony begins. follows it with a fifth off of G#. harp does continual m3. for first page. uses strings, writes measures at the botom of the page, with accents as needed. goes from 3/2 to cut time. includes tambourine. includes bracket. includes fortissimo fast rhythms. paired instruments. ends with e to e flat. keeps pedal for very last apge..

NAWM 201. Arvo Part, Seven Magnificat Antiphons: Excerpts, choral antiphons

neoclassical/serial flair on Greogrian chant/early polyphony.
created system, tiintinnabuli(bell)-characterized by pitch centered counterpoint of each note preset with a specific range,rhtyhm, with text accentuyation. includes canon. reach consonance/dia. dissonance taht ends up with climaxes.
example of tintinnabuli
the soprano stays in perfect 5th
alto moves in thirds and and fourths.
perfect 5th
Sing chords from the tonic, and the tenor shifts in the third.
tintinnabuli aspects:
rhythm(syllabic, long and short) sound(8-part chorus, homophonic) melody(narrow range of a third) harmony:(only has 6 sonorities)

about: used in vespers and shows his religious affiliation.
looks like: homophonic. large numbers, german language, only marking is the numbers and the text. and crescendo dynamics for the end.
looks ike: violin duet until overlayering in measure 6, then another section of the strings do it. Then one dies down we may can end up with 13+ lines playing different notewsbut same rhythms while still on top of contrabass+duet section has long sustained sections, has highly chromatic sections of strings. no complete ress because its usually the duet or cemb?

NAWM 203. Alfred Schnittke, Concerto Grosso No. 1: II, Toccata
char: 3 styles employed:
1. 18 cent. style
2. Modern atonality
3. banal popular music(hymn)

char: includes ligeti-like micropolyphony due to canons. structure: baroque, galant, baroque, hymn, 12 tone, canon, 12 tone..the end of the structure..tuses vivaldi concertos glanat style, twelve tone music, hymn like popular styles and canons and polytonality with modernist polyphony.

about: combines atonal with popular style.
char: reminds me as an oversped violin concerto that randomly goes back to a bach-like canon. that sounds like ascending shepard risset affect. Very crisp lines over legato ones. and then hits film score over an omen. Not so much the actual head chopping but the movement of ghosts.

NAWM 204. Michael Daugherty, Dead Elvis, for solo bassoon and chamber ensemble
char: includes boogie woogie, latin jazz, las vegas show, includes dies irae-death/diabolical & dane macabre-saint saens, and o sole mio, virtuosic basson line.
instruments: cobwell, bongs, brake drum, mutes, and plunger, and harmon mute.
char: mutes/nonmutes are used where plus sign equals mute while circle means no mute.

about: had elvis impersonator it incorporates pop styles with vivid assoc and create new sounds/meaning by reshaping pop material w/ modernist procedures.

char: modernized rock and roll with slips of latin jazz

looks like: cowbell, large range. has sections of insistent violins, definitely carracteristic basson line: BN. INCLUDES Elvis vibrato, brake drum, metal, have sfffz. plunger is marked in. desirbes things as: operatically. Seems to be in constitute with bassoon: Trumpet ussures in spots with long notes. tells bassoonist to kneel. bongos are used. gp is stated for a rest. glissandos are notesd for cb. bongo drum sticksa re used along with a plunger term.

NAWM 205. Bright Sheng, Seven Tunes Heard in China, No. 1: Seasons, cello suite
char: western use
music chracterized by tenor-clef.
uses 2 point counterpoint, often dynamic variation, written in vibration, asked trills. n
char: Bach cello suite (yo yo ma) but using double stops seuqences, implied polyphony(like chines boewed string instruments with grace notes, glissandos, dynamic changes, flexible rhythm–with pentatonic frag to baroque to modernist with polytonality.
styles used:
cosmos of classical, modern music, chinese.
chinese folk music:
-based on qinghai province(where he was sent off)
he referenced this for sound of erhu(chinese stringed instrument with the bo0w characterized glissando, vibrato and free meter.

Perhaps no musical instrument is more evocative of China than the erhu (??), but its origins are in central Asia: The erhu is one of several instruments historically known as “huqin” (barbarian’s fiddle).
-beautiful crescendos. -bow is beyond the string.

other hara:
char: expanded glissando.

like western music: solo cello suite, contrapuntal treatment of the motive , modernist: uses polytonal bitonal/atonal technique. pioneered fusion.
look like: in a K clef , no chromatics, use of vibrato, crescendo of dynamics, written in italian. trill is sued. has meter changes between 4/4 5/4 3/8 and that’s it. first measure states fingering with espressivo under.
char: polytonal in spots. the combo: dance like rhythms/dobule stops/motivic repetition/sequeneces/simulate against chinese style and character like imitating an erhu and qin and ornamentation, glissandos, and free treatment of meter.

RL 21. Toru Takemitsu, November Steps, double concerto for shakuhachi, biwa, and orchestra
title made you feel like you had to be multilingual
*water ring was original and still did November Steps.

about: premiered in november, having 11 steps can translate to danmono(don) which is like theme and variations. EAch variation:steps. 11 variations equals 11steps.
steps describes:’

char: ndom glisandos and the percussive pointillism sounds that brings back that stockhausen/varese-sound masses/like ligeti. feeling but with much more sparse instrumentalization. also has such weird forses like Hyperrism.
char: described as western form(double
shakuhachi described: associated with buddhism, shakuhachi:bambooe flute, 5 ffinger holes, wide range of sounds-rapturous sounds to very pure soft tones. allows pitch bending and noise-like sounds.
pronunciation: SHA-KU-HA-CHI(PHONETIC), plays pentatonic tones, the movement of the head inflects the pitch. during the english civil war. read from top to bottom, and right to left. Vertical like sound.
biwa: pipa—it is form of lute(from 7th century through china with exotic person playing with palmetto tree and on an animal.
the satsuma biwa(associated with tsuruta kinshi) : the person beats
there is a tall bridge which allows pitch bending.
about: he had sitting arrangements.

char: orchestra begins it, and then the two instruments come in quite rapidly.
about: association i
char: really daredevil dynamics shakuhachi**
char: sounds like noise with Varese.

char: uses western notation& graphic notation with definitions. with 9 minute cadenza with just shakuhachi/biw.
about: allows indeterminancy by allowing to choose line.

response: people said that he wrote wrong

symphonic poem
prelude of liszt. A narrative told through music. a piece of orchestral or concert band music, usually in a single continuous section (a movement) that illustrates or evokes the content of a poem, short story, novel, painting, landscape, or other (non-musical) source