sonata form
single movement that consists of three main sections: exposition, development, and recapitulation
first section of a sonata form movement, which sets up a strong conflict between the tonic key and the new key; and between the first theme and second theme
bridge; transition
in the exposition in a sonata form, a section which leads from the first theme in the tonic, or home, key to the second theme, which is in a new key
second section of a sonata form movement, in which themes from the exposition are developed and the music moves through several different keys
fragment of a theme, or short musical idea, that is developed within a compositon
third section of a sonata form movement, in which the first theme, bridge, second theme, and concluding sections are presented more or less as they were in the exposition, with one crucial difference: all the principle material is now in the tonic key
in a sonata form movement, a concluding section following the recapitulation and rounding off the movement by repeating themes or developing them further
theme and variations
form in which a basic musical idea is repeated over and over and is changed each time in melody, rhythm, harmony, dynamics, or tone color; used either as an independent piece or as one movement of a larger work
melodic idea that accompanies the main theme
minuet and trio
compositional form-derived from a dance-in three parts: minuet (A), trio (B), minuet (A); often used as the third movement of classical symphonies, string quartets, and other works, it is in triple meter and usually in a moderate tempo
de capo
from the beginning; an indication usually meaning that the opening section of a piece is to be repeated after the middle section
instrumental composition, light in mood, usually meant for evening entertainment
compositional form featuring a main theme (A) that returns several times in alteration with other themes; often the form of the last movement in classical symphonies, string quartets, and sonatas
orchestral composition usually in four movements, exploiting the expanded range of tone color and dynamics of the orchestra
extended composition for instrumental soloists and orchestra, usually in three movements: fast, slow, fast
unaccompanied section of virtuoso display for the soloist in a concerto, usually appearing near the end of the first movement and sometimes in the last movement
chamber music
music using a small group of musicians; larger than a soloist, less than an orchestra
string quartet
a composition for two violins, a viola, and a cello; usually consisting of four movements
Austrian; sent to Vienna; gave lessons at the Cathedral of St. Stephen; music director of Austria-Hungarian Empire; invented classical symphony and string quartet
Austrian; sent to Vienna; gave lessons at the Cathedral of St. Stephen; music director of Austria-Hungarian Empire; invented classical symphony and string quartet
mood and emotional expression
fluctuation in mood gradually or suddenly; tastefully accepted range of emotions; natural sounding, tasteful
numerous rhythmic patterns provide variety and contrast; unexpected pauses, syncopation, and variety between long and short notes
change gradually or suddenly; enables
tone color
wind and brass instruments used for contrast and timbre
melody and harmony
tuneful, first phrase ends in incomplete cadence and second with full cadence, dissonance to provide suspense and excitement
mostly homophonic with fluctuation of texture
From Salzburg, Austria; wrote in almost every musical form;hated being treated like a servant and broke free at 25 and left for Vienna; child prodigy
born in Bonn, Germany; left Bonn to study with Haydn in Vienna where he stayed for the remainder of his life