Monteverdi: L. Orfeo
ABA, polyphonic, monody, baroque, opera, madrigals, dance numbers, arias, trillos, passagios; drama served the music
Barbara Strozzi: “Lagrime mie”
vocal cantata, baroque, secular
Handel: Messiah, “There were shepherds”
oratorio, baroque, recitative
Handel: Messiah, “Halleluiah” Chorus
oratorio, baroque, recitative, ABA?
Vivaldi: The Four Seasons, la primavera
program music, ritornello, theme and variations, baroque, among the first successful examples of program music
Bach: The Art of the Fugue, Contrapunctus III
fugue, baroque
Gluck: Orfeo ed Euridice
homophonic, classical, opera, AB structure for drama; music served the drama
Mozart: Piano Concerto Number 17 in G, K. 453
piano, concerto
speech-like singing used to convey conversational dialogue
has no staging, not part of Sunday church service; large scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra; substitute for opera
Tone painting
when the music directly portrays the feeling of the music, so as to invoke dramatic imagery
Bach’s musical lineage
shows music was treated as more of a craft than an art
artificially created male soprano who dominated the Italian opera stage in the 17th century
the first section of a fugue
a large, self-contained section within a larger work, such as a symphony
Chamber music
music for a small ensemble of two to about ten players, with one player to a part
short passages of other music which provide contrast to later subject entries in a fugue
an instrumental work for solo instrument and orchestra
Recitative in opera
serves to bridge between other numbers, where the text keeps the story going
Pipe organ
known as the “King of the Instruments”
Doctrine of Affections
notion that an artist must select a desired affect, an emotional state that his or her work will achieve in the viewer or listener, which evokes a single, unadulterated emotional state
Baroque period
1600-1750, word baroque comes from Portuguese “barroco”
Classical period
describes the use of dynamics in the baroque period
Piano-forte (piano)
new keyboard instrument in the classical period that meant “soft-loud”
Ritornello form
orchestral music that begins a movement; means return, which is appropriate as the opening music returns in various keys and fragments until the end
Gallant style
simple style of music during the classical period
Vocal genres in the Baroque period
vocal cantata, opera, oratorio
Basso Continuo
in baroque music, almost always consists of a bass line instrument and a keyboard instrument
became one of the main music centers in Europe during the classical period
Program music
instrumental music associated with a story, poem, or other extra-musical idea
Enlightenment impact on music
artists began to serve themselves as the relationship between composer and powerful consumer was broken
Sources of instrumental music in the baroque period
dance numbers, virtuosos, vocal styling
Concerto grosso
for a group of soloists and a small orchestra
Fortspinnung (forward spinning)
just as one instrument’s melodic phrase is coming to an end, another instrument enters with a fresh melodic idea
referred to as the “father of the Western style of harmonization”
Vocal cantata
sizable work for small orchestra, chorus, and vocal soloists. could be religious or secular
a tuneful section in which the singer reflects upon the action that has just taken place
polyphonic composition built on a single principled theme called the subject
Counter subject
distinctive polyphonic line that recurrently accompanies the subject in another voice in a fugue
Ideal music
universal language; noble and entertaining; expressive but in good taste; sound natural
Florentine camaratta
created opera
solo singer accompanied by basso continuo
places in songs where performers are expected to improvise
improvisations in scales