Melody
Is the line or tune in music.
Melody
Is a succession of single pitches that we perceive as a recognizable whole.
Contour
A part of the melody in its overall shape as it turns upward, downward, or remains static.
Range
Is the distance between the lowest and highest notes.
Interval
The distance between any two pitches.
Conjunct
Melodies that move principally by small intervals in a joined connected manner.
Disjunct
Melodies that move in larger disconnected intervals.
Phrases
Is a unit of meaning within a larger structure.
Cadence
The phrase ends in a resting place.
Counter Melody
A melody may be accompanied by a secondary melody.
Counter Melody
More complex music can feature several simultaneous melodies. Sometimes the relative importance of one melody over the other is clear, and the added tune is called a _________. (Against the melody.)
Climax
The high point in a melodic line, which usually represents a peak in intensity as well as in range.
Rhyme Scheme
A poem describes the similarity in sound of the last syllables in each line.
Rhythm
Is what moves music forward in time.
Rhythm
Music is propelled forward by _________, the movement of music in time.
Beat
is the basic unit of rhythm, it is a regular pulse that divides time into equal segments.
Accented
Some beats are stronger than others.
Meters
Organizing patterns of rhythmic pulses.
Measures
In notation, are marked off.
Measure Lines
Regular vertical lines through the staff.
Downbeat
The first accented beat of each pattern referring to the downward stroke of a conductor’s hand.
Duple Meter
Alternates a strong downbeat with a weak beat.
Triple Meter
A basic pattern has three beats to one measure- one strong beat and two weak beats.
Quadruple Meter
Contains four beats to one measure, with a primary accent on the first beat and a secondary accent on the third.
Simple Meter
Meters in which the beat has duple subdivisions.
Compound Meter
Meter in which each beat is subdivided into three rather than two.
Sextuple Meter
Most common compound meter that has 6 beats to the measure, with accents on beats one and four.
Syncopation
A deliberate upsetting of the normal pattern of accents.
Off Beat
Instead of falling on the strong beat of measure, the accent is shifted to a weak beat, inbetween the strong beats.
Polyrhythm
The simultaneous use of rhythmic patterns that conflict with the underlying beat, such as ‘two against three” or “three against four” the left hand might play two notes to a beat, while the right hand plays three notes to the same beat.
Additive Meter
The rhythmic organization is even more complex or grouping of irregular numbers of beats that add up to a larger overall pattern.
Nonmetric
Some music moves without any strong sense of beat or meter, or that the pulse is veiled or weak.
Cords
When three or more tones are sounded together.
Harmony
Describes the vertical events in music, or how they sound together.
Harmony
The sitmultaneous sounding of notes to form cords and the progression from one chord to the next. It implies movement and progression.
Scale
The intervals from which cords and melodies are built are chosen from a particular collection of pitches arranged in ascending or descending order.
Octave
An interval of eight notes. Do~Re~Mi~Fa~Sol~La~Ti~Do
Triad
A particular combination of three tones.
Triad
Common chord in Western music which has three notes built on alternate pitches of a scale.
Tonic
Is the central tone around which a melody and its harmonies are built.
Tonic
The first note of the scale, “Do”, serves as a home base around which the others resolve and to which they ultimately gravitate.
Tonality
The principle of organization around a central tone.
Dissonance
Is created by an unstable, or discordant, combination of tones.
Dissonance
As music moves in time, we feel moments of tension and release. The tension is a perceived instability, a combination of tones that sounds discordant, in need of resolution. ________ introduces conflict into music in the same way that suspense creates tension in drama.
Consonance
Occurs with a resolution of dissonance, producing a stable or restful sound.
Consonance
A concordant, or agreeable, combination of musical tones that provides a sense of relaxation and fulfillment. At their extremes, dissonance can sound harsh, while ____________ is more pleasing to the ear.
Drone
A harmony consisting of a single sustained tone.
Half Step
The octave (interval of 8 notes of the scale) is divided into 12 half steps, the smallest interval used.
Half Step
12 equal semitones, from these are built the major and minor scales (each with a different combination of 7 notes).
Whole Step
Two half steps make a whole.
Chromatic Scale
Is made up of 12 half steps.
Sharp (#)
Raises a tone by a half step.
Flat (b)
Lowers a tone by a half step.
Key
Defines the relationship of tones with a common center or tonic. Also a lever on a keyboard or woodwind instrument.
Diatonic Scale
Is built on patterns of seven whole and half steps that form major and minor scales.
Diatonic Scale
Diatonic Music, both the melody and the harmony are firmly rooted in the key.
Pentatonic
5 notes scale, most common in African, Asian, and Native American musics. ________ ________ can be formed in a number of patterns, each with its own unique quality sound.
Tritonic
A 3 note pattern found in the music of some African Cultures.
Microtones
Some scales are not easily playable on Western Instrument because they employ intervals smaller than our half step, and may sound “off-key”.
Inflection
One way of producing microtonal music by an inflection of pitch, or making a brief micro-tonal dip or rise from the original pitch.
Active Cords
In the diatonic system, chords which need to resolve to the tonic cord. These include the dominant chord and the subdominate chord.
Subdominate
The triad built on the fourth scale (fa) is known as the ________ (IV). The movement from the _________ to the tonic (IV to I) is familiar from the chords accompanying the “Amen” sung at the close of many hymns.
Modulation
Composers begin by establishing a home key. Then change to a related key, perhaps the dominate, in doing so creates tension, because the dominate key in unstable compared to the tonic.
Transposition
Composers may take an entire work and set it or transpose it, in a new key. This is convenient when a song’g original key is too key or low to sinf or play easily. You could begin on a different pitch and shift all the tones a uniform distance to a different level.
Texture
Refers to the interweaving of the melodic lines with harmony in music.
Monophony
Is the simplest texture or single-voiced music without accompaniment.
Heterohpny
Refers to multiple voices elaborating the same melody at the same time.
Improvisation
In which some of the music is created on the spot.
Polyphony
“Many-Voiced” textures, in which two or more different melodic lines are combined, thus distributing melodic interest among all the parts.
Counterpoint
One musical line set against another.
Homophony
A single voice takes over the melodic interest, while the accompanying lines are subordinate.
Imitation
In which a melodic idea is presented in one voice and then restated in another. While the imitating voice restates the melody, the first voice continues with new material.
Canon
Is strictly imitative work.
Round
Is the simplest and most familar form of a canon. In which each voice enters in succession with the same melody that can be repeated endlessly. Think Row Row Row Your Boat.
Form
Is the organizing principle in music, its basic elements are repetition, contrast, and variation.
Repetition
Fixed on the material in our minds and satisfies our need for the familiar.
Contrast
Stimulates our interest and feeds our desire for change.
Strophic Form
One of the most common in vocal music, both popular and classical, in which the same melody is repeated with each stanza of the text.
Varitation
One principle of form that falls between repetition and contrast, where some aspects of the music are altered but the original is still recognizable.
Binary
Two-part, is based on a statement and a departure, without a return to the complete opening section. (A-B)
A-B
Binary
Ternary
Three Part, form extends the idea of statement and departure by bringing back the first section. (A-B-A)
A-B-A
Ternary
Theme
Is a melodic idea in a large-scale work.
Theme
When a melodic idea is used as a building block in the construction of a larger musical work.
Motives
Is the smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-rhythmic unit. Motives are the cells of musical growth, which, when repeated, varied, and combined into new patterns, impart the qualities of evolution and expansion.
Sequence
Results when a motive is repeated at a different pitch.
Sequence
Repetition, which may be either exact or varied. Or the idea may be restated at higher or lower pitch level.
Call-and-Response or Responsorial Music
A repetitive style involving a soloist and a group.
Thematic development
The expansion of a theme, achieved by varying its melodic outline, rhythm, or harmony.
Ostinato
Is the repetition of a short melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern.
Movement
Large-Scale compositions, such as symphonies and sonatas, are divided into sections.
Tempo
Is the rate of speed, or pace, of the music.
Moderato
Moderate
Allegro
Fast
Adagio
Quite Slow
Accelerando
Speeding up
Ritardando
Slowing down
Dynamics
Denotes the volume (degree of loudness or softness) at which music is played.
Forte
Loud
Piano
Soft
Timbre or Tone Color
Properties of sound include pitch, duration, volume.
Instrument
Is the mechanism that generates musical vibrations and launches them into the air.
Register
Describes a specific area in the range of an instrument or voice, such as a low, middle, or high.
Vocal Ranges
How high or low a voice is sung.
Soprano
Mezzo-Soprano
Alto
Womens voices sung.
Tenor
Barritone
Bass
Mens voices sung.
Aerophone
Musical instruments that produce sound by using air blown into or over a pipe.
Chorophones
Musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating string stretched between two points. The string may be set in motion by bowing, plucking, or striking it to cause it to vibrate.
Idiophones
Musical instruments that produce sound from the substance of the instrument itself. They maybe struck, shaken, scraped, or rubbed.
Membranophones
Musical instruments that produce sound are drum-type instruments that sound from tightly stretched membranes. These instruments can be struck, plucked, rubbed, or even sung into, thus setting the skin in vibration.
Strings
All chorophones that are bowed or plucked.
Chorophones
Violin, Viola, Cello (violoncello), Double Bass== Bow or plucked
Harp== Plucked
Guitar== Plucked
Woodwinds
Areophones, produce a sound with a column of air vibrating within a pipe that has fingerholes along its length.
Areophone
Flute
Oboe
Clarinet
Bassoon
Saxophone
Brass
Areophone, have a cup shape mouth piece attached to a length of metal tubing that flares at the end into a bell.
Areophone
Trumpet
French Horn
Trombone
Tuba
Percussion
A variety of idiophones and membranophones.
Membranophones
Timpani/Kettle Drum
Snare Drum
Tenor Drum
Bass Drum
Tom-Tom
Piano
Strings that are struck with hammers. Cannot sustain tone.
Organ
type of areophone/wind instrument. Air flows into many of its pipes.
Harpsichord
quills pluck metal strings.

A Cappella

Singing without accompaniment.

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Chorus

Is a fairly large body of singers who perform together, their music is usually sung in several voice parts.

Choir

is traditionally a smaller group of singers. 

Chamber Choir

Is ensemble singers for small groups, with one singer per part. (SATB)

Chamber Music

Is ensemble music for small groups, with one player per part. 

String Quartets

Woodwinds Quintets

Brass Quintets

Orchestra

Modern, features 80 to 100 players. 

Conductor

Leads by use of a baton to keep beats to help performers keep the same tempo.

Symphony Orchestra

Strings coupled with an assortment of woodwinds, brass, and percussion. 

Concert Band

Sometimes called wind ensemble. 40-80 players- secondary schools, colleges, universitities. 

Sacred Music

For religous functions. 

Secular Music

For non-religous functions. 

Genres

Categories of music. 

Cross over categories

Borrowing elements of one style for use in another. 

Symphony

Is a genre designation for a standard format- usually a four-movement orchestral work. 

Symphony

also implies Medium,  or specific group that performs the peiece in this case, an orchestra. 

Oral Transmission

Some music is not written down but is known. It is passed down and played from memory. 

Style

The distinctive features of any artwork. A musical _____ is created through individual treatment of the basic musical elements. 

Historical Periods

Organize styles of artwork, each with its own characteristics.