The structure closest to the surface of the music
May or may not contain all of the pitches of the original music
And underlying level that shows long range connections, and emphasizes what is unique about a composition
-Removes from the foreground, shows connections that are not obvious
Background (Ursatz)
The deepest underlying structure, where most compositions look the same
-Uses fewest notes
Structure (Chapter 1)
-Harmony through tree levels
-Counterpoint (including voice leading, passing tones, neighbor tones, leading tones)
-Motivic structure
-When a motive is expanded to encompass a longer span of music
Tonal unity in which a configuration of tones recurs in identical form, whether in immediate succession or over a broader span of music
Structure (Chapter 2)
Melodic Fluency
Stepwise motion
Descending Leading Tone
Scale degree 2
When an active tone remains active even though other tones may intervene with embellishment
Implied note
Cantus Firmus
A simple melody traditionally given in alto clef comprised of whole notes
First species CP
Whole to whole 1:1
Second Species CP
Whole to half 2:1
Third Species CP
Whole – Quarter 4:1
Fourth Species CP
Rhythmic suspension – can be consonant or dissonant
Fifth Species CP
Combination – with 8th note embellishments
Embellishments that require smaller note values
Consonant/Chordal Skip (CS)
A leap from one note to another note that is supported by the same harmony
Transfer of Register
Allows additional space in the counterpoint be shifting up an octave
chord vs. harmony
T- Int-D-T Harmonic Class, even though the chords may change.
chord prolongation
Prolonging a particular pitch class or harmonic class – the chords used in the process are called contrapuntal chords
expanded motion between different harmonic classes
Stufe (“scale step”)
contrapuntal chords
Used to prolong pitch or harmonic classes
Motivic brackets
Used to highlight motives
Evaded cadence
An internal progression that leads to a cadence then backs off, often through a V 4/2 to a I6 motion
Apparent tonic
When a tonic appears in an intermediate progression but does not represent an actual return of an actual tonic class (use quotations)
Teiler (“divider”)
Always placed in Brackets, always a 5…often comes at antecedent phrase, often ends with a half cadence.
5-6 technique
A chord in root position is transformed into first inversion over a common bass note
imaginary continuo
Reducing a piece to block chords
chromatic transformation
linear progression (zug)
Train/motion a scalar motion that unfolds an interval or intervals of an underlying chord through embellishment (3 4 5 6 or 8)
Prolong a single chord or connect two related chords
motivic parallelism
a statement answer pattern creating an imitative relationship within the voices
linear intervallic pattern
a harmonic sequence containing a repeated interval pattern between two pitches used for prolongation (either from a single harmony or expanded space)
voice exchange
secondary linear progression