Lecture 1 Copland: What are stylistic features of Copland’s music that have contributed to his reputation as an iconic figure in American music?
open spacing of harmonies, bold and vigorous rhythmic activity and the span of his melodies evoke rural and urban American culture
Lecture 1 Copland: Who was Copland’s principle teacher and mentor?
Nadia Boulanger
Lecture 1 Copland: Explain the concept of “la grande ligne”
the sense of a long line of a composition, sense of forward motion, flow and continuity in the musical discourse, an entire piece as one functioning entity
Lecture 1 Copland: From what composer’s work was this concept derived “la grande ligne”?
Gabriel Faure
Lecture 1 Copland: Who were Copland’s earliest influences?
Debussy, Scriabin, later Monteverdi, Bach, Ravel and Stravinsky.
Lecture 1 Copland: What are the five major stylistic phases of Copland’s career?
modernism and complexity
Lecture 1 Copland: How did Copland’s political views influence his music of the 1930’s and 1940’s?
more accessible to the people
Lecture 1 Copland: Though not itself serial in any sense, the Twelve Poems of Emily Dickinson shares what aesthetic affinity with serially influenced works like the Piano Quartet?
serialism, introspective
turning inward
complex, private world of the composer
Lecture 1 Copland: What are harmonic fields?
passage where harmony is static – [usually a part of what we call pan-diatonicism]whole section of music controlled by one single diatonic scale
diatonic scale – you always have 5 possible accidentals that will form a pentatonic scale
Lecture 1 Copland: What are two principle motivic materials that lend a sense of unity to the Dickinson cycle?
M3rds, M7th chords, descending parallel progressions
Lecture 1 Copland: How does enharmonic and chromatic voice leading play a part in projecting the tonal architecture of the piece?
sudden harmonic changes, with common tones in flats
(he slowly adds B minor pitches so we go from E flat major to B minor via added accidentals)
Lecture 1 Copland: What other harmonic formation is particularly important to the language of “Heart, We Will Forget Him”?
interval major 7th
Lecture 1 Copland: What are significant structural pitches in “Heart, We Will Forget Him”?
D and E flat
Lecture 1 Copland: In what ways does this song reflect the influence of Paul Hindemeth?
pillar chord, which defines the arrival of a new harmonic field
Lecture 1 Copland: In what ways does this song reflect the influence of Gustav Mahler? To what work(s) of Mahler’s does it see to allude?
major 7th harmonies, long appoggiaturas
Mahler symphonies, and song cycles Kindertotenlieder and Das Lied von der Erde
Lecture 1 Copland: What elements in the music of Mahler would have attracted a fundamentally anti-Germanic, Francophilic composer such as Copland?
his song cycles and the clear textures in the orchestration
Lecture 1 Copland: What affinities does Copland have with Franz Liszt?
good musical citizens who are there to help other people
Lecture 3 Spectral Music: What are the four parameters of a single note?
pitch, duration, dynamics, timbre
Lecture 3 Spectral Music: Define the term “Klangfarbenmeldie”
term coined by Schoenberg to describe the possibility of a succession of colours related to one another analogous to relationships between pitches. Therefore, a timbral transformation of a single pitch could be perceived as equivalent to a melodic succession
Lecture 3 Spectral Music: Understand the acoustical parameters that create timbre
pitch, duration, dynamics

(perception of a timbre: overtone series, attack and decay)

Lecture 4 Pan diatonicism: What is pan diatonicism?
(general term to describe the use of diatonic harmonic fields)
unique: no patterns from classical music, like I IV V, not related to classical tonality but related to the diatonic scale
Lecture 4 Pandiatonicism: What properties of the diatonic scale allow the ear to detect a given note’s sense of place within the octave?
diatonic scale – interval vector, asymmetric, transposable 12 times
Lecture 4 Pandiatonicism: Consider the statement “With one trivial exception, every subset of the diatonic scale has 12 transpositions” What is the exception?
tritone is the exception
Lecture 4 Pandiatonicism: Which harmonic progressions are most likely to be avoided in pan diatonic music?
tonal patterns like V I, IV V I, IV I, etc.
Lecture 4 Pandiatonicism: How is the effect of pan diatonic music paralleled in the use of rhythm in Satie and Stravinsky’s music?
connection between pan-diatonicism and simplicity of rhythm, texture and number of notes.
Lecture 4 Pandiatonicism: How is Stravinsky’s use of pan diatonicism in Duo Concertante different from Satie’s in the 2nd Gymnopedie?
Stravinsky has clear sense of a tonic, Satie avoids having a tonic.
Lecture 4 Pandiatonicism: What is the principle difference between practice diatonic music and pan diatonic music?
absence of traditional chord patterns such as a cadence, absence of shifts between keys by means of chromaticism – less or no use of transposition
pan-diatonicism is “more diatonic”
Lecture 6 Britten: What famous chord is Britten referring to in the very first harmony of Death in Venice, and why is he referring to it?
the tristan chord
Lecture 6 Britten: What method does Britten employ at the very start of the work, and who originated this method?
Schonberg and the 12-tone system
Lecture 6 Britten: In what strange way did Gustav Mahler influence the plot of Mann’s Der Tod in Venedig?
When he heard about Mahler’s death, he used it as the focus of the story (he had the ideas before). Name of the character: Gustav (?)
Lecture 6 Britten: Which non-western ensemble was Britten imitating (with Western instruments) in his depiction of the young boys at play on the beach?
Lecture 6 Britten: What work of Plato is essential to understanding the philosophical background of Death in Venice?
The Phaedrus
Lecture 6 Britten: Greek mythology, Medieval mystery play, and a philosophy of Nietzsche’s come together in which two characters of the story?
Apollo (good angel) and Dionysius (bad angel)

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Britten was writing medieval history opera plots before

Lecture 6 Britten: Which hybrid technique of Britten’s creates the sense of an “artificial reverberation”, depicting the “labyrinth of Venice”, and things “lost, forgotten, or audible only from a distance”?
hybrid between heterophony and canon
Lecture 6 Britten: By which musical quotation in Death in Venice does Britten bring his music in direct contact with the ancient world?
actual fragment of an ancient greek song (there are very few left)
Lecture 6 Britten: By what method, drawn from American composers, does Britten create “the fluid recitatives, choral ensemble scenes, and free accompaniments” that “create the illusion of a seamless flow in time and space”?
indeterminacy (any parameter of music is left up to the performer) – close to aleatoric
Lecture 6 Britten: In what way does Britten create harmonic effects using only the tones of a melody?
by sustaining the melodic tones it becomes a harmon
Lecture 6 Britten: To whom was Britten’s Death in Venice dedicated?
Peter Pierce
Lecture 7 Beatles: What was the date (month, year) of the Beatles’ famous U.S television debut? On which well-loved American variety show did they appear?
Ed Sullivan show
Lecture 7 Beatles: Which one of the following descriptions of the personnel/instrumentation for the recording of “She loves you” is incorrect?
Lead guitar, rhythm guitar, bass, and drums is the RIGHT answer
Lecture 7 Beatles: Which two prominent trichords, defined in terms of set theory, permeate the song?
025 mainly, also 013
025 often ascending, 013 often descending
Lecture 7 Beatles: What subset of G major plays a vital role in the melodic structure?
there are 3 pentatonic scales in each diatonic scale
here: E G A B D
Lecture 7 Beatles: Which motive, defined in terms of set theory, is prominently heard in both the voices and the lead guitar?
Lecture 7 Beatles: What dyad (interval) is central to the harmony of the song from beginning to end?
dyad (interval) E to D or D to E (2nd or 7th)
Lecture 7 Beatles: Which aspect of formal structure was, in the early ’60’s unique to Beatles songs?
modular structure – you can rearrange them, put them in a diff structure
Lecture 7 Beatles: What distinctive rhythm in the drums is featured in the refrains?
quarter note? triplets
Lecture 7 Beatles: What is the nature of the bass part in the song?
rooted 5th (or root and fifth?)
Lecture 7 Beatles: Which Beatles song was on the B-side of the “She Loves You” single?
I’ll Get You
Lecture 5 Minimalism and Canon: How would you describe minimalism in relation to modernism?
It lets the music take its course like a time turner or pulling back a swing as it comes to rest
Lecture 5 Minimalism and Canon: What composer (who was NOT minimalist) was an important catalyst for the minimalist movement in music?
John Cage
Lecture 5 Minimalism and Canon: What are some other important influences on minimalism?
canonic techniques, rules
Lecture 5 Minimalism and Canon: Do the composers in this lecture agree with the term minimalism?
No they prefer the term impressionist or music with repetivie structures
Lecture 5 Minimalism and Canon: Who are some of the important examples of American and European minimalists?
LaMonte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass, Arvo Part, Henryk Gorecki, and John Tavener
Lecture 5 Minimalism and Canon: Why have minimalist composers been interested in various forms of canonic techniques?
because now all dissonances are allowed…giving it more opportunities, to create a sense of echo, economy, or strictness in the relationship of the lines
Lecture 5 Minimalism and Canon: What is Phasing?
two tapes are of the same recording are playing slightly out of sync with one another, gradually getting further and further apart
Lecture 5 Minimalism and Canon: What is mensuration canon?
each group of players enters playing exactly the same material but each as a rhythmic augmentation of the previous group
Lecture 5 Minimalism and Canon: What is the meaning of the term “indeterminate”?
is chosen by chance, or if its performance is not precisely specified
Lecture 5 Minimalism and Canon: In what important way is the minimalist (and the modernist) approach to canon different from that of past composers such as Ockeghem and Bach?
They had to concentrate on where dissonances were places whereas newer composers use canons for rhythmic similarity