A system of alternating lines and spaces. It can be ordered from lowest to highest and highest to lowest.
Diatonic scale
A scale containing only the 7 unaltered pitches.
Letter Names
The 7 pitches of the diatonic scale. They are: C D E F G A B.
Middle C
It is the pitch C4 in the middle of the staff.
A system consisting of 5 lines and 4 spaces where notes are placed.
Ledger Lines
Lines that can extend notes above or below the staff.
Clefs are used to indicate which notes correspond to the lines and spaces on the staff.
Treble Cleff
Also known as G cleff. It shows where pitch G is notated.
Bass Clef
Also known as F clef. Shows where f is notated.
Alto and Tenor Clef
They are c clefs.
Grand Staff
Connects 2 staves by a brace.
Equal temperament
Divides the octave into twelve equal parts.
Chromatic Scale
A scale containing 12 equal parts.
Half Step/ Semitone
Distance between 2 adjacent notes on the chromatic scale.
A pair of pitches
Raises a note by a half step.
Lowers a note by a half step.
Cancels out any previous accidental.
Double Sharp
Raises note by a whole step.
Double Flat
Lowers a note by a whole step.
Enharmonic Spellings
Shows the different spelling for notes that sound the same but have two different spellings.
Diatonic Half Steps
A half step spelled using different letter names.
Chromatic Half Step
A half step spelled using the same letter names.
The distance between two pitches.
Pitches that sound simultaneously.
Pitches that sound one after the other.
Size of interval
Term determining the distance between intervals such as a 2nd, third or 4th interval and so on.
Quality of an Interval
Is what determines the type of interval. It will decide if an interval is perfect, augmented, diminished, major and minor.
Ascending and descending
The interval with the same notes such as C-F will be notated differently depending on if it is going higher or lower on the scale.
Certain intervals with a pure and essential sound.
An interval which is larger than minor by a half step.
And interval which is smaller than major by a half step.
Augmented interval
It is a half step larger than the corresponding perfect or major interval.
Diminished Interval
Is a half step smaller than the corresponding perfect or minor interval.
An augmented 4th that consists of 3 whole tones.
Simple Intervals
Intervals that are no larger than an octave.
Compound Intervals
Intervals that are larger than an octave. It results from the addition of the simple interval plus an octave.
Two different intervals are possible with any two pitches.  An example would be C-F changing to F-C.
Consonant Interval
Intervals are consonant if they produce a sense of stability.
Dissonant intervals
Intervals that create a sense of tension or instability.
Perfect consonances
The most stable consonances. They are the U, 8ve and P5.
Inperfect Consonances
Instable consonances. The imperfect consonances are 3rds and 6ths.
Refers to the grouping, patterning and partitioning of musical events.
Refers to the measurement of the number of pulses between reguarly recurring events.
Durational Symbols
Symbols that express the relative duration of notes.
Note heads
It is the base and rounded part of the note.
Note Stem
The straight line connecting to the note head.
An addition to the top of the note that expresses a notes such as the 8th and 16th notes. Each added flag changes the duration of the note.
Connects two notes together to make one.
A dot added to a note increases its duration by half its value.
Double dot
Increases the duration of the note by 3 quarters of its value.
Reguarly recurring time points in music. It is compared to the heart beat of music.
Pulses in a metric context. Regularly reccuring accents that provide a metric frame.
The speed of the beat.
Tempo Markings
Are used to describe the tempo of a movement or composition.
Compound meters
Meters that have a triple division.
Simple meters
Meters that have a duple division.
A complete metric unit.
Bar lines
Are used to indicate measures.
Meter Signature/ Time Signature
Consists of two numbers written one over the other. Top number explains how many beats in a measure while the bottom number explains which note gets the beat.
Value of the beat
The bottom number that represents what note gets the beat.
Duple Meter
Any meter with two beats. (3/4, 3/2, 3/8 )
Triple Meter
Meter that has 3 beats. (3/4, 3/2, 3/8)
Quadruple Meters/ Common Time
Meters with 4 beats.
Cut time
Duple meter in which the half note is the unit of time.
Compund Meter Signatures
The beat in compound meter signatures is a dotted quarter. 6/8 9/8 12/8
First beat in a measure.
Metric Accents
Beats that are naturally more accented than others.
The last beat in a measure.
Is a note or group of notes that begins a melodic phrase on an upbeat.
Anacrusic melody
Melody which begins on an upbeat.
Is the rhythmic contradiction of a metrical pattern of strong and weak beats. This occurs when a metrically weak beat or beat division is emphasized by a rhythmic and/or dynamic accent.
Cosists in the juxtaposition of three and two beats at the metric level. An example of a usual pattern is based on the alternation of 6/8 and 3/4.
Rhythmic Accents
Accents that result from grouping, note length, a sense of harmonic or tonal arrival, and other nonmetrical factors.
Agogic Accent
A rhythmic accent produced by the duration of a note that is of a longer duration.
Dynamic accent
An accent which is created by a dynamic mark.
Tonal Center
One pitch that seems to be most important.
Pitch that provides a sense of stability, repose and closure.
The span between the lowest and highest pitches of a melody.
Collection of three pitches which include the root, third above the root and a 5th above the root.
Tonal System
Pitches are organized heirarchically.