Dark Ages (time)
Gothic Period (time)
Romanesque Period (time)
What did medival music mostly consist of? Why was this?
Vocals. The church frowned on instruments because of their earlier association with pagan rites.
What was the most common instument used in church music after 1000?
What was lacking in the first forms of notation music?
indication of rythem
What is Gregorian Chant
offical music of the ROman Catholic Church. Melody set to sacred latin texts and sunch without accompaniment, MONOPHONIC.
Why is it called Gregorian Chant?
named after Pope Gregory the first who reorganized the catholic liturgy.
When were the earliest surviving chant manuscripts?
ninth century
What were the two types of services the Chants were sung at?
Office and Mass
Why were the chants first notated?
To ensure uniformity throughout the western church.
Church Modes
like our scales had 7 diff tones and an 8th that duplicates the first an octave higher.patterns of whole and half steps are different. 
Hildegard of Bingen
abess of Rupertsbeg in germany. first woman composer for whom a large number of works have survived.
one or more long sustained tones accompanying a melody
first secular songs surviving in decipherable notations were composed by whom?
French nobles known as toubadours and trouveres
what did most secular songs speak about?
LOVE. but also the crusades, dance songs and spinning songs.
what were the wandering musicians called and how were they considered.
jongleurs. no civil rights, lowest social level.
medival dance. triple meter with strong fast beat.
bowed string instrument (chordophone)
tubular wind instrument (aerophone)
What happened between 700 and 900 that transformed western music?
monks in monastery choirs began to add a second line to Gregorian chant. (polyphony)
medical music that consists of one or more additional melodic lines
how did organum begin?
2nd improvised melodic line moving in paralell motion with the melody usually at the interval of a fourth or a fifth
what was paris? what did it become?
the intellectual and artistic capital of Europe. became the center of polyphonic music.

who was the first composer known to write music with more than two voices?

why did the beat for medival music always have to be divided in threes?
sign of the trinity
cantus firmus
cahnt ath is used as the basis for polyphony (fixed melody)
why did secular music become more important than sacred music in the 14th century?
Hundred years war, Bubonic plague, weakening of the feudal system and the catholic church.
ars nova
“new art”  changes in musical style in the 14th century
an italian poetic and musical form that originated as a dance form.
mass ordinary (what are the 5?)
texts that remain the same from day to day throughout the church year. (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei)