Cyclic Mass – what was it, who wrote them, approximately when were they written, what features characterize a Cyclic mass?
What? All movements of the Mass Ordinary unified by a common cantus firmus.
Who? Du Fay
When? 1450s
Example: Se la face ay pale by Du Fay
Se la face ay pale
by Du Fay. 1st mass by any composer to use a secular piece for the cantus firmus. Also, a lower like than tenor for once.
Head Motif
thematic idea in multiple voices at beginning of a movement or section
one voice generates a second voice generates a third. Example: Missa prolationum by Ockegehem.
Missa prolationum by Ockegehem
only two voices are notated, the other two are in canon of the first.
In each movement each voice has its own mensuration. (upper two in imperfect [2], lower in perfect [3].)
Types of Motets
1. Liturgical
2. Devotional
3. Occasional
Liturgical Motet
Motets that were suitable for the Mass Proper
Devotional Motet
Motets that were religious but not sung during the Mass. Nonliturgical.
Motets that were written for specific occasions, such as a dedication to a cathedral, or on the death of nobility.
L’homme arme Mass written by….
Des Prez
Wrote remarkable polyphony
french composer
contemporary of du fay
mathematicin, astronomer, and musician. wrote lots of motets and mass movements
Strict Cantus Firmus
CF in tenor at all times, but may appear in other voices as well
adhere to the principle of strict canon
Imitation (or parody)
the CF is incorporated into the new work in
1. all the voices, not just one OR
2. in the opening sections of important movements.
-by the 1550s, this is most dominant type of Mass structure
borrows existing melodic idea from one work and freely imitates it in all voices of a new work
Cantus Firmus – 3 types
Can be based on a secular piece or melody
1. strict
2. ostinato
3. free
Cantus Firmus Ostinato
CF appears in at least one voice at all times. Ostinato: theme repeated without interruption many times throughout work.
Free Cantus Firmus
CF moves from voice to voice or may drop out altogether occasionally
What happened in 1501? Who was Petrucci?
He was the first one to use movable metal type to print music. He did so first in 1501.
-homogeneous texture
-equal rhythm
-pervading imitation
-text: courtly love
-paratactic form
-use of hemiola
-combined with rondo form
-Composers include Sermisy and Janequin
-texts less serious
-no imitation/counterpoint
-chordal structure
-I-IV-V-I harmonic patterns
Notable composer: Petrucci
lira da braccio
large viol-like instrument held on the shoulder
a bent horn
bladder pipe
type of babpipe
“sausage bassoon”
keyboard instrument in renaissance
basse danse
popular dance in 15th and 16th centuries. the notated sources perserve only a series of long notes, around which other instruments were expected to improvise their own contrapuntal lines.
important musical changes that happened in rennaissance
-standard sonority moved from a layered texture to a homogeneous texture.
-cantus firmus technique replaced isorhythm as the predominant structural principle in large-scale works
-pervading imitation had become a standard feature in almost all generes of music
absalon, fili mi
example of occasional motet by josquin de prez
El Grillo
A piece by Josquin which is antiphonal and predominately chordal. different than his other works, more similar to frottolas.
the back and forth between singers or groups of singers