Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven
Greats of the Classical Period
1750 – 1820
Years of the Classical Period
fascination with ancient ideas of Greeks and Romans
What classifies the Classical Period?
Vienna; Viennese Classical style
Center for Classical Music?



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democracy and equality

What did the classical era coincide with?

Capital of Holy Roman Empire


administrative center for W. Europe


many aristocrats and nobles travelled here

Why is Vienna important during the Classical Era?


sonata form

theme and variations

minuet and trio

rondo or sonata or ternary


How is the symphony organized and how many movements does it have?

exposition : expose themes (A, bridge, B)

development: varies the themes, creativty and drama


coda: closing section


Dramatic conflict and resolution

only form invented in this period; it is the most involved form

describe sonata form
involves many rapid patterns to get to theme B or theme 2
describe the bridge of sonata form

2nd movement of symphony and sonata

based on folk songs, patriotic melodies;

songs everyone will know

the melody is most often altered

usually lyrical and tender


****Introduced by Haydn

Theme & variation

3rd movement in symphony

in ternary form (A,B,A)


minuet and trio
scherzo — “joke” in Italian
what did Beethoven use for the third movements of his symphonies instead of minuet and trio?

 can be 4th movement of the symphony

very fast

ABACAD; always returns to “A” or the main theme

describe rondo form
has three movements
how many movements does a sonata have?

performed by solo keyboard or instrument

3 movements fast-slow-fast

used to provide students with material they might use to study or to enjoy


describe a sonata

ternary or sonata


theme and variation



sonata forms
instrument most associated the the sonata is
there are no . . . for piano during the Classical Period
2 violins, viola, cello
instruments of string quartet
chamber music
what type of music is string quartet
string quartet
most important genre of chamber music during this time
string quartet
Haydn is the father of the. . .

small audience or small group


amateurs and professionals

string quartets are written for whom
# of movements in a string quartet
Did all three greats of this Period write String Quartets?
public concerts were popular so the size of the symphony grew with concert attendance
why did the symphony grow?
how many movements does a concerto have?

piano and violin


piano as the most popular

what are the instuments of the concerto?

double exposition form


the themes are exposed by the soloist and orchestra

what is the first movement of a Concerto?
cadenza — the orchestra stops and the theme is improvisation by the soloist
what is near the end of the first movement of a Concerto?
moves from serious opera to opera buffa (comic)
what is the difference between opera in the Renaissance and Classical Eras?

Don Juan is dragged to hell by a man he killed



Don Giovanni

wrote 104 symphonies

father of the string quartet

successful under the patronage system, ordered

had his own orchestra at Esterhazy palace


child prodegy

composer at age 6, travelled to London @ 8 with sister

died in mid 30’s

not successful under patronage system

more than 650 compositions

had Kochel numbers to classify compositions


bridge between the classical and romantic

wrote 9 symphonies

wrote piano concertos and chamber music

went deaf later in life



manufacturing went up during Classical

common in homes

played louder during this time

@ first had a wooden frame and had lighter sound

piano history during the Classical