a 4-movement instrumental work that features the orchestra “symmetrical sound”
a group of performing musicians representing strings, woodwinds, brass & percussion instruments; 60 players in Haydn & Mozart’s time, 120 players in 2003
Chamber Music
music written for small ensembles; played for parties, weddings, afternoon concerts
String Quartet
a group of 4 string players, usually 2 violins, 1 viola & 1 cello
String Quartet
a 4-movement instrumental work that features 2 violins, 1 viola, & 1 cello; designed exactly like the composition “Symphony”
Concerto (solo)
a 3-movement work for instrumental soloist; more elaborate than the Baroque, with wide variety in mood, tempi, key
Diagram (Form)
use of capital letters to identify melodic/harmonic material to display “form”, or design of a movement from a concerto or symphony
a large stage production where the singers’actors sing every line of the libretto, usually in Italian; Mozart will change this by writing a libretto in German
an elaborate solo song for instrument, usually for piano, violin, or flute; 1 mvt at this time
Sonata-Allegro Form
the most common “blueprint” for all kinds of music from Chant to “Pop”; 3-section balanced & symmetrical form; “A-B-A”
the 1st section of a Sonata-Allegro form; the 1st melodies heard in the composition; the “A” in the diagram
the 2nd section of a Sonata-Allegro form; the melodies from the exposition are “played with” – fragmented, transposed, etc; the “B” in the diagram
the 3rd and final section of a Sonata-Allegro form; the Exposition music returns to “round-off” the piece; the last “A” in the diagram
an extension of the recapitulation for dramatic effect; delays the final chords a bit
a form originated in the Baroque; has a “ritornello” (music that comes back), with new music in between (A-B-A-C-A)
Sonata-Rondo Form
a “hybrid” combination of a Sonata-Allegro & a Rondo form; invented in his string quartet in C minor – “ABA-C-ABA”
the successor to the Baroque Period’s Harpsichord; made of iron & brass instead of all wood; capable of playing very loud, very soft, and everything in between; it’s name means “Loud/Soft”
Theme & Variation (form)
the repetition of a melody, or “theme”, with a new & different accompaniment each time the “theme” is repeated
Minuet & Trio(& Minuet)
dance in “3” meter; predecessor of the 19th century’s Waltz; used a lot as 3rd movements in symphonies, string quartets, and concertos
Scherzo (& Trio & Scherzo)
a really fast “minuet & trio (& minuet); Beethoven’s departure from the classical world, & into the Romantic 19th Century