era of romanticism
Characteristics of Romanticism
But foremost………..
—individuality, emotionalism, and nationalism are all characteristics of the romantic Era******
Romantics experimented with new instruments, colorful harmony, new form(strophic/thorough composed and tone color))))***********

1. individuality of style
-self-expression by composers
– many composer created music that sounds unique and reflects personalities.
2. Expressed Aims and subjects-
Explored universal feeling that included flamboyance, and intimacy, unpredictability and melancholy, rapture and longing
3. Nationalism/ Exoticism
– when composers deliberately created music with a specific national identity( folk songs, dances, legends, history, etc)
4. Expressive Tone color-using tone color to obtain variety of mood and atmosphere
-timbre had never been this important
-Romantic orchestra was much larger than classical( more varied in tone color)******
Orchestra reached close to 100 musicians(20-60 for classical)******************************
Use of trombones, tubas, and more horns and trumpets.
————–1824-Beethoven broke precedent by asking for 9 brasses for 9th symph.
1894- Mahler demanded- 25 brass for 2nd symph
Addition of valves had made it easier for horns and trumpets to cope with intricate melodies
-piano was enhanced-east-iron frame was introduced to hold the string under great tension and the hammers covered with felt extended the range
5. Colorful harmony
-greater emotional intensity, composers emphasized rich, colorful, and complex harmonies
-chromatic harmony- chord containing tones not found in prevailing major/ minor scales.
Wide variety of keys/rapid modulations ( key changes)

Hire a custom writer who has experience.
It's time for you to submit amazing papers!

order now

Tonic key is less clear than in classical works*********
6. Extended range of dynamics, pitch, and tempo
-classical dynamics: pp to ff ….************
NOW Romantic went from pppp-ffff***************************************
-Extreme low and high sounds
-changes of mood often characterized by speeding up, slowing down,
much more fluctuation in tempo than w/ classical pieces*************

franz schubert
School teacher turned full-time composer
-worked in middle and upper middle class
– EARLIEST master of ROMANTIC ART SONG (OVER 600)—****SCHUBERT************
-genius as a child
-love of poetry led him to compose art songs-
——-father riding on horseback through a storm with his sick child in his arms
Delirious boy has vision of erlking( king of elf(symbolizes death)
——Schubert died of Syphilis at 31 years old.
art songs
Composition for solo voice and piano
Uses a fusion of poetry and music
Common subject matter: love and nature
-Mood was set by piano at the beginning; Piano acts as interpreting partner
(Schubert Schumann and Brahms set poems in their own language.
strophic form/thorough composed
1.Strophic form- same music repaeat for each stanza of a poem- makes it easy to remember**********
2. Thorough composed- writing new music for each stanza************
3. Modified strophic ——-aba
-has romantic elements in Goethe’s poetry supernatural and folk legend.
3 Characters in poetry :::::
Child-high register in minor
Father- low register
Erlking-in major
Piano part depicts galloping horse
Form: Thorough Composed
Clara Weick Schumann
Child prodigy, taught by father
-composed pieces for piano****************
-married Robert Schumann( 9-19 years old, 10 year old gap)************
-promoted husband’s music after his death
— her husband : Robert Schumann, was a composer, writer, and critic************
Romance in Eb minor, Op. 11, no. 1-schumann
Romance: short, lyrical piece for piano
Born in Warsaw, Poland
-travels to Paris in Adulthood(center of music)
-composed almost exclusively for piano
-Nocturne**= night piece-slow lyrical intimate composition for piano.
Known for the nocturnes*********
Chopin, Nocturne in Eb Major, op 9, no 2
-melody- graceful ornaments (turns trills, mordents) and long phrases
-texture- melody plus accompaniment, clear division of the role of the two hands.
Rhythm-performed with Rubato

Initially a medical student before turning to music
-Stepped in Romanticism: Shakespeare, German Literature
had to often arrange his own concerts of large symphonic works
-Innovative orchestrator
–at a time when average orchestra had 60 players, he had hundreds.

Program Music
Definition-instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene
Examples: Fantastic Symphony, Romeo and Juliet, Moldau, etc. -all depicts emotions, character and events.
-Non musical ideas are specified by the title or by composer’s explanatory comments (the program)
-opposite of program music :*********
Absolute Music- no theme or characteristics, just music********
symphonie fantastique
-Example of program symphony: composition in several movements with a program
– it was for Harriet Smithson**********
I Reveries, passions
II Ball
III Scene in Country
IV-march to the scaffold
V dream of a witches’ Sabbath.
Idee fixe- single melody used in several movements of a long work to represent a recurring idea. *******

Again, large orchestra for Berlioz( Romantic period used miniature/monumental forms- Chopin/ Clara Schumann)
-pieces were ExTREMELY long!!

movement 4- march to scaffold
March to fit the program for this movement
Juxtaposition of the “somber and fierce” and “brilliant and solemn” moods
The appearance of the idee fixe near the conclusion of the piece.
Graphic depiction of the falling head and the cheering crowd

Enormous influence on Composers following him
-Travels in early years- appointment and Dresden in 1842(Opera House- became famous as composer and Conduct of OPERA)
-Exiled in Switzerland after the 1848 insurrection, then focused on composition
-Patronage of King Ludwig of Bavaria after 1864.

Wagner’s Revolution of Opera
–composed mostly operas******* and music dramas
-wrote his own libretto based on Germanic legends and Teutonic/Norse mythology
-Mature works do away with the division of the acts into separate pieces or “number” and replaced it by a continuous musical flow —-”unending melody”
-focus shifted away from the voices to the ORCHESTRA
-there was a SYMPHONIC TREATEMENT TO THE orchestra
– colorful use of the orchestra
(WAGNER —invented new instruments ))
——-used chromatic and dissonant harmonies
-Wagner uses leitmotif- brief recurring musical idea associated with a character, an object or an idea articulated in the Libretto (love, Notung)**********************not idee fixe************
die walkure from ring of nibelung
– second installment of the 4 part cycle based on Nordic mythology
The excerpt is the end of the love scene at the end of act I between the twins Seiglinde and Sigmund
Wagner’s Ring Cycle:
the continuous texture ( lack of division between recitative, aria, ensemble, etc)
-orchestra provides the SYMPHONIC texture upon which the singers declaim
-Flexible vocal line fluctuates between speech-like declamation and a more melodic style
Use of several leitmotifs for every character.
20th century
(1914-1918) (1939-1945)
-cold war (1947-1991)
us and Soviet
Economic Growth
-equal rights
Wright brothers, 1903
1969-moon walk
Crick and Watson, DNA
USA replaced Paris and Vienna *******
early 20th cent stuff
new technologies stimulate artists
Artists explore human sexuality
Women and minorities in arts
Artists express alienation, antihero and antiwar
Post Modern Art: combines styles of Baroque, romantic and new 20th century.
musical styles 1900-1945
Similar to the arts time of revolt in music
Entirely new approaches to the organization of pitch and rhythm
Some composers broke tradition so sharply that they were met with hostility
Ex. 1913, Paris, rite of spring- Stravinsky

Inspiration from folk and popular music, the music of Asia, African, Latin, American, and European art music from mid ages – 19th Century
-Emergence of Jazz(American sound)

20th century characteristics
1. Tone color-major role in creating variety; continuity and mood
Glissando- a rapid slide up or down a scale
-all instruments are asked to create new sounds –
—————-flutter tongue, string techniques, percussion, and piano
2. Harmony:
Consonance and dissonance are blurred.
-any chord can be used at any place in a phrase
3. New Chord Structures:
-polychord: one chord against another.
4th chord- tones a fourth apart(Debussy, copland)
Previously, notes in a chord were a third apart)
Tone cluster- chords made up of tones a half ( whole or whole step apart)
-some modified tonality but some just went atonal ignoring I and V as the strongest chords
Polytonality- 2 or more keys at once ( Charles Ives -3 places in new England)
Bitonality- 2 different keys at once
Atonality- absence of key
5. Rhythm:
-Irregularity and unpredictable
-used for power, d rive and excitement
Polyrhythm- 2 rhythms at once
Ostinato- rhythmic repetition of a group of pitches.
6. Melody- unpredictable, had large leaps- difficult to sing.
musiciian and musicians society(broadcasting aspect)
Broadcasted Muisc
– composers’ interpretations of their own works were recorded, giving composers an opportunity to communicate precisely their intentions for phrasing/dynamics/ tempo
-radio broadcasts of live/ recorded music had a large audience——-
– w/ TV, broadcast music performances could be seen and heard.
—- there was more recording and transmission of music
-the interest of the audience increased
– people were programming 20th cent music
music and musician’s society – forreal though
————————–Latin, African American, and women finally became prominent in music
Latin: revueltas, chavez, ginasbra, piazzolla,
Women- beach, seeger, Gideon, fine , oliveros, flower, zilch, kolb, ran, and
Boulanger- French musician was the mos important teacher of musical composition
African American-Will Grant Still, swanson, kay, Wilson, leon, walker(lilacs-Whitman)

——————-Studying and creating American music became popular(Us is music center)

-American jazz/popular music was everywhere
-after 1920, a large group of composers flourished representing different contemporary styles.
US- has 1st rank symphony Orchestras

2. American Colleges and Universities
all great musicians studied here ( repping diff contemporary styles)
– have trained and employed many of the leading composers, performers, and scholars
-music course have caught the interest of many students
-universities have sponsored performing groups in contemporary music
-universities have electronic music studios
-universities: patrons of music ( like churches used to be)

Impressionsim and Symbolism
-French Impressionist Painting
——————originated in 1874, at an art exhibition
-obsessed with water pastel colors

French Symbolist Poetry:
-writers called symbolists rebelled against the conventions of French poetry
– emphasized fluidity in a poem
-many composers used symbolist poetry as inspiration for pieces.

claude debussy
Known as the IMPRESSIONIST**************************
– BORN IN Paris
Studied at the Paris Conservatory
Won the Prix de Rome in 1884
-influenced by Russian Music , Asian Music
( Paris international expo of 1889 and Richard Wagner)
-Opera Pelleas et Milsander( 1902) —————career turning point , now know as GREATEST LIVING FRENCH COMPOSER
debussy’s music
Impressionism- stress ON TONE COLOR, atmosphere, and fluidity in music(used whole tone scale )( prettiness)*******************************
-inspired by literary and pictorial idea, sounds improvisatory
-treatment of harmony was revolutionary
—————-composers composed chords with TONE COLROS IN mind, not necessarily the harmonic function/ progression.
– Dissonant chords often do not resolve
-pentatonic- five note scales first in JAVANESE music
Five successive black keys on piano, f#, G#, A#C#D#
-Whole tone scale- six note scale each a whole step apart.
Rhythmic Flexibility- the pulse is sometimes as vague as the tonality
Composed for opera, art songs, piano, orchestra, and chamber ensembles.
emotional restraint**************, balance and clarity**************
-used musical forms and stylistic features of earlier periods
1920 -1950–popular by Igor Stravinsky and paul Hindemith
Performed by SMALL************** orchestra and chamber groups
-polyphonic fugues, concerti grossi,a nd baroque dance suites.
——–tonal, major or minor scales
Igor Stravinsky
did neoclassicism
-legendary figure during his life ( riots)
-JFK honored him with a dinner at the White House
Born near St. Petersburg, RUSSIA
-studied with Nikolai Rimsky–Korsakov
-collaborated with impresario Sergei Diaghilev
Ballets: Firebird Petrushka, and rite of Spring**************
-he moved to LA to escape wars in Europe
1950s, adapted Schoenberg’s 12 tone system
-he loved order and discipline and said that he composed “everyday , regularly, like a man with banking hours”
-toured into his seventies and eighties
the deliberate evocation of primitive power through insistent and percussive sounds and African theme.
rite of spring
Rite of spring- riot, paris, 1931**************
—-spectators were shocked and outraged by its pagan primitive, harsh dissonance, percussiveness, and pounding rhythms.
However, recognized as a masterpiece and influenced composers all across the world
Expressionism- musical style stressing INTESNE, SUBJECTIVE EMOTION and harsh dissonance, typical of German and Austrian Music of early 20th century**************
Meant to sound ugly on purpose( madness and death)****
–conveys anguish of poor/oppressed
——-The expressionist was Schoenberg**********
Viennese self-taught musician who invented the 12 tone system********
post 1945 characteristics

——general: everyone was fairly unique********** 1. 12 tone system- Rite of Spring- Stravinsky 2. Serialism-techniques w/ 12 tone system to organize rhythm, dynamics and tone color.  ( Debussy- Faun Song )

3.Chance music(aleatory)- john cage’s sonatas and interludes********** ————-ALEATORY MUSIC( CHANCE)- music composed by the random selection of pitches, tone colors and rhythms****************************** 4. Minimalist music- steady pulse, clear tonality, insistent repitition(John Adams-short ride on a fast train)****** 5. Musical quotation- deliberate quotations from early music. —Taaffe Zwillich – Concerto Grosso****** 6. Tonal music and return to tonality by some composers 7. Electronic music-poeme electronique-varese ********** 8. Liberation of Sound-greater exploitation of noise like sounds —poeme electronique **** 9. Mixed Media-poeme electronique*** 10. New concepts of Rhythm and form – Shards by Elliot Carter—-*******************

Charles Ives
1874- 1954
– American
-Successful insurance agent but composed after business hours, on weekends, and holidays
– he was completely unknown, none of his major works publicly performed and his scores acculumulated in the barn of his Connecticut home
-compositions are deeply rooted in folk and popular music
-variation on “America”
Considers the 1st American Composer————
Used polytonality- 2 songs layered on top of each other
William Grant Still

-leading composers of “Harlem Renaissances”
-Flowering of African culture during 1917-1935
-composed Afro American Symphony( 1931) and was the 1st composition by a black composer to be performed by major American Symphony Orchestra
– at age 15, he enrolled in the Wilberforce University ( ohio)
-was a premed student—————————————abandoned medicine for music
-1917- Oberlin College Conservatory for musical training, left to serve in Navy during WWI.
-1st African American to conduct a major symphony orchestra—-LA Philharmonic—composed after Great depression.

aaron Copland

-Born in Brooklyn, NY
– at age 15-decided to become a composer
-music went through phases
– First: he wanted to be “American in character” —-Jazz
-American folklore- Billy the kid, rodeo, Appalachian Spring
-Jazz, revival hymns, cowboy songs, and other folk tunes
-film scores and patriot works ( Lincoln Portrait)
– name became synonymous with American Music
– studied with NADIA BOULANGER
—-woman who taught several generation of American Composers and was sympathetic to contemporary musical trends.

JOhn Cage
– he made 4’ 33—song in which the person sat in the piano, and the piece was the sounds of the audience************—————–*****
-Influential creator of Chance music/ percussion music*****
-invented prepared piano
prepared piano
a piano whose sound is altered by objects such as bolts, scres, rubber bands, pieces of felt, paper, and plastic inserted between string of some of the keys
– prepared piano creates sounds resembling percussion instruments
(drums, cymbals, xylophones, etc)
sonatas and interludes
66 min log
Best work for prep piano.
Included 20 short pieces: 16 one mvmts and 4 interludes.
edgard Varese
-born in France- spent much of his life in the us
-1916, dreamed of freeing music from limitations of traditional instruments and expanding the vocabulary of sounds
-pioneered exploration fo percussive and noise-like sounds
poeme electronique
—composed Poeme Electronique in 1958(75 yrs old)
– is considered done of the earliest masterpieces of electronic music
-created in a tape studio
-obtained unique spatial effects by using 425 loudspeakers strategically placed in the pavilion for the Brussels world Fair
– Photos, paintings, and writings were projected while music was playing.
ellen taaffe zwilich
-born 1939
-won Pulitzer Prize for her Symphony No. 1
Studied at FSU and Julliard
-violinist in the American Symphony Orchestra
Concerto Grosso(1985)
Example of quotation music.
-commissioned by the Washington friends of Handel to commemorate Handel’s 300th bday
-each movement uses thematic material from Handel’s sonata for violin and continuo in d major
-written for SMALL orchestra
-mvmts are arranged symmetrically.
—–opening: finale
——4th and second——
1st and last–quotes Handel