trans. “Works” – a large stage production where the singer/actors sing every line of the scirpt (libretto), usually in Italian
trans. “Work” – the “Op.” sign appears after many composition titles, indicating a Catalog number that identifies chronology of the piece in the composer’s library
trans. “Song” – an elaborate lyrical song for a man or woman solo singer with orchestral accompaniment; found in Operas, Oratorios, and Musical Theatre
the music which utilizes the entire singing “cast” on stage; usually serserved for the end of ;”acts” of ends of Operas, Oratorios, and Musical Theater
dialogue in an Opera or Oratorio that must be sung; however it is not as formal as an Aria or Chorus, and has no set rhythm, therefore no meter
the first “Board of Directors”; developed rules which govern the techniques of performances for Opera (later Oratorio as well), funded the first productions
the “script” of an Opera ; Oratorio; usually taken from an existing literary work
;a large, independent composition that is combined with others to form a single larger work
(either Solo or Grosso): a 3-movement composition for Instrumental Soloist/Soloists with Orchestral accompaniment; Secular, in that there are no singers
“Terraced” Dynamics
sharp ; abrupt contrasts between louds ; softs; no gradual dynamic changes (crescendo/diminuendo) done in this period
music that returns, like refrains in hymns ; “popular” music
all, or everybody; the entire orchestra and/or chorus
exactly the same definition as in the Renaissance; simple imitation, using the same notenames, regardless of the octave (example: Soprano imitated by a Bass)
the new “high tech” form of imitation made famous by J.S. Bach; “imitation” is 5 notes higher than the original melody (called a subject), or 4 notes lower; they’re the same!
a simple Lutheran hymn tune, usually by Martin Luther himself, sung in Soprano-Alto-Tenor-Bass choir settings. All 4 voice parts move at the same time, with the Melody Always in the Soprano part (Homophonic texture)
the “grandparent” of the modern Piano(forte); a wooden arm with a guitar “pick” plucked the string when the key was depressed. It had “pedals” later on, but lacked dynamic control and volume of the modern piano
this refers to the role played by the harpsichord & cello in Baropque orchestras; indicates the ability of the instruments to potentially keep playing without need for a “stop”. This was a requirement set down by J.S. Bach; that music must not have “rests”
a “lutheran” version of the Cathlic Motet; a 7/8/9 movement for chorus, orchestra, organ, or harpsichord, and vocal soloists; tells a story, a fable, a lesson
a Sacred Opera; a composition for Soloists & Chorus (similar to “Principles & Casts”) In an Opera, but Sacred in content. Its uses the Bible as the “Libretto”, eliminates the Costumes, sets, “castrati” singing women’s roles, ; make-up. Messiah is the most Famous – G.F. Handel
made famous by J.S. Bach; a 2-movement masterpiece for the pipe Organ, Bach’s favorite instrument to play. Imitates Improvisation
is virtuoso imitation based on “subjects” of the  Toccata.