Basso continue
name given to the instuments that realize the figure bass, for instance, harpsichord and cello: organ and bassoon, etc.
Figured bass
a short hand for chords indicated by numbers under the bass line indicating the harmonies that are to be used to accompany the melody.
Fiorentine Camerata
Italian ensemble, experimented with drama added to music in performances which led to the development of Opera.
Doctrin of Affections
a compositional philosophy of the Baroque, one mood or affection per movement or section.
solo song w/ accompaniment
Equal Temperament
tuning system advocated by J.S. Bach, tuning by half steps, chromatically.
a large musical drama including arias, recitatives, ensembles and orchestra. It combines poetry, acting, scenery and costumes with singing and instrumental music.
a large dramatic genre with religious or Biblical text, based on religious or Biblical characters, performed by solo voices, chorus, ensembles and orchestra. It is not staged or costumed.
a lyrical art song, allows for emotional expression
a speech-like form of singing, speech-like musical declamation of the text.
*The recitativo advances the plot moving forward the action.
*Secco: Italian for “dry”, meaning without instrumental accompaniment.
*Accompagnato: it is accompanied and thus moves more evenly.
instrumental number that opens the work and sets the mood.
the script to the work written by the librettist.
is a Protestant hymn of the Lutheran tradition
sacred or secular. Vocal genre for solo singers and instrumental
accompaniment based on lyric, dramatic or narrative poetry.
George Frederick Handel
composed oratorio “Messiah” and “The Water Music.”
Worked for King George I.
Johann Sebastian Bach
composed “Well Tempered Clavier,” advocated Equal
Temperament as a way of tuning instruments. Also composed Cantata #140
“Sleepers, Awake.”
Henry Purcell
wrote opera “Dido and Aeneas,” one of the first operas with all
components of the genre.
Concerto or solo concerto
a solo instrument set against an orchestra
Concerto Grosso
comprises 2 sections, a big group alternating with a small
ensemble. The big group is called “Tutti” or “Ripieno” (full), and the small group is called “Concertino.”
Tutti or Ripieno (full)
the big ensemble group in a concerto grosso
the small ensemble group in a concerto grosso setting
Trio sonata
a sonata comprising three staves or systems
Keyboard instruments of the Baroque
Clavichord, Harpsichord and Organ
Antonio Vivaldi
“Red Priest.” Wrote “The Four Seasons,” a set of four violin
concertos, was very active in Venice.
The Four Seasons
written by Vivaldi, the “Red Priest.” A set of four violin concertos
based on word painting technique, it is a programmatic composition.
an oratorio written by Handel, based on Biblical texts and on the
scriptural account on the life of Jesus Christ. It comprises three sections: Christmas, Easter and Redemption.
Baroque Suite
set of dances. It comprises 4 dances, all in the same key. The order of
dances is: Allemande, Courante, Sarabande and Gigue.
Well Tempered Clavier
composed by J. S. Bach, is a set of 48 Preludes and Fugues
in all keys, published in 2 volumes of 24 each. Advocated equal temperament tuning.
means “flight,” “escape,” based on strict imitation.
variations on a melody in the bass line.
variations based on a succession of harmonies.
Jean-Philippe Rameau
wrote a “Treatise On Harmony.”
term that identifies the style of sensibility, style of sensitivity, the
Age of Enlightenment, characteristic of the Rococo or Galant Style.
Carl Philippe Emanuel Bach
wrote “Essay On The True Art Of Playing Keyboard
Instruments.” Provides a detailed table of Baroque music ornaments (embellishments)
Rococo, Galant Style
a 75-year period connecting the Baroque period with the Classical period.