Fela Kuti
Pioneer in “afro-beat”
Elements of jazz, funk with traditional African
Born, spent adult life in Nigeria
Studied music, played in bands in London during
Played trumpet, saxophone, piano, sang
Fela Kuti
Traveled to Los Angeles in youth; inspired by
literature of Black Panthers, Malcom X
Life was constantly marked by conflicts with
authority, police, riots
Built fence around home in Nigeria, declared
it to be independent state: Kalakuta Republic
Married 27 women (at the same time)
Fela Kuti
Songs involved moral, political
Compares Nigerian military tactics to zombies
Trouble Sleep Yanga Wake Am
Don’t go looking for trouble
People can only endure so much
Roforofo Fight
Absurdity of fighting, egos, intolerance
Astor Piazzolla
? Born in Mar del Plata, Argentina
(South of Buenos Aires)
? Raised in NYC, began playing
bandoneon at age 8
? 1937: returns to Argentina; plays in
Troilo’s orchestra, studies composition
Astor Piazzolla
Piazzolla at first hides his background
in tango music
? Ashamed of tango’s reputation as dirty,
? Boulanger to Piazzolla: “You idiot!
THAT’S Piazzolla!”
? 1955: Piazzolla returns to Buenos
Aires; discards all work up to that point-
Astor Piazzolla
Injects inspiration taken from jazz,
classical music into traditional tango
? Dissonance, extended harmonies (from
jazz), polyphony from classical music
? Transforms tango into form containing
more possibility for deep, musical
expression, artistry.
Astor Piazzolla
? Leads several tango ensembles over the rest of his
life, numerous recordings.
? Gains international reputation; performs all over the
? 1987: Central Park Concert
? Collaborates on projects with Gary Burton, Kronos
? Output includes countless works for chamber
ensembles, tango groups, Opera: Maria de Buenos
Aires and several orchestral concertos for
yo yo ma
silk road ensemble
Rastafarian Movement
Jamaica :Reggae
Public Transcripts
Open displays of power, meaning
Hidden Transcripts
Messages through symbol; coded terms
Nuevo Tango: Piazzolla
Injects inspiration taken from jazz,
classical music into traditional tango
? Dissonance, extended harmonies (from
jazz), polyphony from classical music
? Transforms tango into form containing
more possibility for deep, musical
expression, artistry.
Bellows instrument (closely related to
? Staple instrument of tango music
? Originated as substitute for churches
that couldn’t afford an organ
? Fingerings involve complicated, twisted
motion (similar to dance…)
sung dance form
? Originated in Cuba
? Various “sones” have been adopted
across Central America, vary from region
to region (son jalisciense)
? Arose from combination of Spanish song
(cancion), including Spanish guitar, with
rhythms and instruments of African origin
? Originated on Eastern part of Cuba (oriente)
? Late 19th century
? 1920’s-50’s: growth in popularity in United States
? Basic song style, varying characteristics
? Typical “clave” rhythm:
Orquestra tipica
2 violins, piano, double bass, 2
17th century: South Africa colonized by
English and Dutch
1940’s: National Party, descendants of
European colonists, assume political control;
enact apartheid laws of racial segregation
Marriage, employment, discrimination
1990-1994: Apartheid laws removed
1994: Nelson Mandela
“thumb piano”
» Made from plucked strips of metal
fixed inside hollowed shell (such as
gourd, or wood); also has metal
caps, other elements to make
buzzing “noise”-customary feature
of timbre.
» Seen in various forms across all of
Africa-often available as souvenir
» Central instrument of the Shona
people of Zimbabwe
» Music created by repeated pitched
rhythmic patterns (like Gamelan)-
often with vocals over it
Music is used for various purposes:
» Telling stories, communicating, entertainment
» Spiritual worship: mbira dzavadzimu (religious
» “Bira”
» Night-long ceremony where a family gathers to call
upon spirits of dead ancestors for help and advice.
» Mbira is played all night long-used as vessel of
prayer during ritual.
» Medium: Spirit enters human body when
possession trance occurs-mbira helps to induce
– Persian aerophone; similar to flute!
– Vali uses extended flute techniques to resemble
ney; includes Persian drums in the percussion
persian fiddle
Kayhan Kalhor- yo yo ma
? Originated in early 20th century-Buenos Aires,
? Combination of various European genres (such as
polka, mazurka) with Spanish flamenco and African
? Originally popular in whorehouses, music for
gangsters, thugs, lowlifes
? Resulting dance style is highly sensual, suggestive, erotic
? Golden Age: from 1920’s-50’s tango became
mainstream musical style (in Argentina as well
popular internationally)
? Famous orchestras under leadership of Carlos Gardel
(1887-1935), Anibal Troilo
? Muted sensual elements of music, but maintained tonal,
rhythmic vitality of the genre
? 60’s-onward
? Piazzolla (Nuevo Tango)
Tango Muscial Characteristics
? Rhythm: “Macho,” repetitive rhythm, heavy
downbeats; quadruple meter-dance
? Tonality: “paradoxes”
? Minor key=engaging, vibrant
? Major key=melancholy, bittersweet, sad
? Uses semitones (half steps) around V (Dominant)
? Often ends on V (Dominant) chord, or some other unstable
? Orquestra tipica: 2 violins, piano, double bass, 2
Ideological origins in Ethiopia: Emperor
Haile Selassie; Rastafarian movement
Jamaica becomes center of Rastafarian
Support for fall of “Babylon”-representative of all
white colonial powers
1960’s: Reggae becomes associated with
Develops from ska: popular music adopted from
Jamaican rhythm
Toots and the Maytals
Afro-Cuban religious and musical practice
» Combines language, beliefs of Yoruba cult
from Nigeria with aspects of Catholicism
» Result of slave trade
» Dates back to 1500’s-development through
» Yoruba natives brought to Caribbean, South
America, baptized as Roman Catholics
» Developed way to continue original belief
system while appearing to adopt Catholic
Santeria Customs
» God; supreme deity; created orishas
» Possession
» Music leads to possession of an individual by
whichever Orisha is being invoked
» Secrecy
» Information about customs, beliefs rarely
shared with outsiders, general public
» Lack of clarity on actual numbers of
practitioners; census estimates often
» Oral religion: no central book or text.
Beliefs passed on by word of mouth.
Tibetan Buddhist Chant
» Melody for Mahakala
» Om
» Sacred, mystical syllable in numerous Eastern
» From Sanskrit: to sound out loudly
» Chant: Fundamental (bass note) and
harmonics performed by single voice
Performances will include singing,
as well as other percussion
accompanying mbira (shakers).
» Notice bottle caps around shell of
mbira; extra “noise”/buzzing
characteristic of the instrument
“Country” song, slightly slower than a son;
typically led by guitar
? Slow, romantic ballad