a piece for several solo voices (4 or 5) that sets a vernacular poem to music about love; most important genre in Renaissance; began in Italy and made its way to England
a slow, gliding dance in duple meter performed by couples holding hands
fast, leaping dance in triple meter
word painting
practice of depicting text by means of descriptive musical gesture. music follows words
requires union of music, drama, scenery, costumes, and dance;  “opera drammatica in musica”
text of an opera; writer of text of opera; poet with the composer
musically heightened speech, through which the plot of the opera is communicated to the audience
more passionate, more expansive, and more tuneful than recitative. conveys what a character feels
sound; a type of instrumental chamber music for the home with just one player per part. written for solo instrument accompanied by basso continuo; has 3-4 movements; BAROQUE PERIOD!
trio sonata
3 solo instruments; 2 instruments and basso continuo. so has 4 players
solo concerto
musical composition marked by friendly contest between soloist and an orchestra. has 3 movements
concerto grosso
small group of soloists (2 or more) work together performing as a unit against the full orchestra
the group of instruments that function as soloists in the concerto grosso
something sung in an oratory (hall or chapel used specifically for prayer and prayer with music). no decorations, cheap, unstaged opera with a religious feel
sung; multimovement sacred work including arias, ariosos, recitatives, performed by vocal soloists, a chorus, and a small accompanying orchestra. Important to the Lutheran Church
a composition of 2-5 parts played or sung by voices or instruments, which begins with a presentation of a subject in imitation in each part (exposition), continues with modulating passages of free counterpoint (episodes) and further appearances of the subject, and ends with a strong affirmation of the tonic key; polyphonic composition with subject imitated
ritornello form
form in a Baroque concerto grosso in which all or part of the main theme – the ritornello- returns again and again invariably played by the tutti or full orchestra
the full orchestra/ full performing force
latin for “work”; the term adopted by composers to enumerate and identify their compositions
name given to early polyphony of Western Church from the 9th – 13th centuries. first type of polyphonic music; 4 voices
figured bass / basso continuo
a small ensemble of atleast 2 instrumentalists who provide a foundation for the melody or melodies above; heard mostly in the Baroque; usually 2 people. Ex: harpsichord and bass instrument like cello or theorbo
ground bass / ostenato
an accompaniment that repeats itself over and over again
walking bass
one note consecutively repeated
collection of dances
greatest composer of the fugue
Renaissance period
1600 – 1750
Baroque Period
400 – 1400
Medieval Period
chief texture of Medieval
troubadour music
beginning of secular song in Medieval; monophonic; poet and musician
choral music
musical ensemble of singers
first type of polyphonic music; in the Medieval
choral music and instrumental music
types of music during the Renaissance
predecessor to the guitar; plucked
chief texture of the Renaissance
terraced dynamics
the sharp, abrupt dynamic contrasts found in the music of the Baroque era; practice of shifting the volume of sound suddenly from 1 level to another
violin and strings
which instruments develop during the Baroque?
ritornello form
first movement of concerto grosso normally in what form?

red-haired priest

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Hospice of Mercy


wrote 50 operas $$

450 of solo concertos — “Opus 8”

The Seasons — Spring


Johann Sebastian Bach

studied the greats of his time

best organist; fav instrument

greatest fugue writer

comes from musical family

organist to a court in 1708


cantor of St Thomas in Leipzig from 1723-50



instrument most used in the fugue
George Frederic Handel

from Halle Germany

father wanted him to study law

at 18 left for Hamburg became 2nd violinist in opera

In Florence and Venice wrote operas

Rome wrote cantatas

London wrote oratorios $$ cheaper, Eng loved, Puritan vals

Water Music — played on Thames for royal cruises



born in Cremona, moved to Mantua

many musical talents

maestro di cappella at St. Marks in Venice

1st great composer of opera

1st opera — Orfeo

made use of Aria

aria and recitative
two main styles of singing in the Baroque operas
Gradual Viderunt omnes
Kyrie of Messe de Nostre Dame
Ce moys de may
Ave Maria
Pavane and Galliard
As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending
Orfeo Act III “Possente spirto”
Violin Concerto in E major (the “Spring”), I
organ fugue in G minor
Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, I
Water Music, Minuet and Trio
Messiah “He shall feed his flock”
most important genre in the Baroque
beat and meter
driving force of concerto grosso