Vingt-Quatre Violons
du Roi=24 Violins of the King
First large ensembles of violin family

Accompanied ballets, balls, king’s supper, other court entertainment

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Would become an orchestra, but by this point, it had 5 string parts, winds weren’t listed

Da Capo Aria=”from the head”
Performer repeats A at the end of B, resulting in ABA1 form

Allows for repetition and contrast, demonstrates mu
sician ship; B is usually in new key and mode for new emotion of the text

A1 means there is ornamentation put on the section

Ritornello form
A primary formal structure of the baroque period; refers to the return of the group players; each section is a ritornello alternating between soloist and the group; usually a substantial one in the middle

First ritornello present all the motives outright, then soloist takes one and develops it,

Episodes have new material; interesting because of contrast; length not symmetric

A type of evening concert given in the church during Advent

It would have cycles of cantatas and oratorios

Bach attended one that influenced on his music and style

Also known as tragadie lyrique, a form from the ballets de cour

Lully in the court of Louis XIV made V act dramas combined serious plots from ancient myth or chivalric tales had frequent divetissments (long interludes of dancing or choral singing)

Meant to glorify the king, plots depicted well ordered solciety, different from Italian opera because it was “restrained and elegant” did not have “empty virtuosity”

Sonata da camera,
Sonata da chiesa
Both forms use dance movements, though the Chiesa Sonata have no dance labels

Chiesa could be used in a church setting during a long mass, using organ, could be more polyphonic and contrapuntal to be more serious, while camera had the bass scored for one instrument either chordal or melodic

Instrumental composition in the Baroque period, generally of four movements

Simple recitative,
measured recitative
As other recit., it moves the action forward in an opera. French especially, as the language had to be fit; it is a much “smoother” language than Italian

Simple recit. Had frequent meter changes, to follow the text, and had straight forward accompaniment.

Measured recit. Had a more steady meter, and the accompaniment is much more active

French overture
Lully developed the style in the ballet de cour, but it became fully devoped in his opera

Had two sections, a slow opening and a faster polyphic section, closing with brief return to the slower section, making

Had a great influence on European musical style

Keyboard Suite
A collection of dance-like keyboard compositions meant for amateurs who played for family and friends

The movements were in binary form, except for the prelude and chaconne

Had many unwritten ornaments assumed by the performer

Royal Academy of
Established by Handel in England to produce opera seria

Failed after nine years, when it had a royal charter to last 25

Rival groups, such as Opera of the Nobility, challenged it. It’s failure lead to Handels production of oratorios.

Pio Ospedale della Pieta
Workplace of Antonio Vivaldi, where he would teach violin and compose for the orphans who lived there

Women had to perform behind a curtain because they thought it was vulgar otherwise.

Premiered many of his works here; because of the demand, he wrote many concertos, as seen in his rep.

Collegium musicum
A group of amateur musicians (mostly uni students) in German speaking countries during

Bach and Telemann lead one in Leipzig

They would perform secular music in public, for pleasure; focused on instrumental music; began German concert music

Trio Sonata
A instrumental piece played by four musicians

Flexible instrumentation, though had two treble (violin), 1 bass (cello, bassoon, usw), and basso continuo (harpsichord for camera and organ for chiesa)

Like all sonata, used dance movements and could be fugal and contrapuntal

Style brise, style luthe
Two styles of the French Keyboard Suite Prelude

Lute style is individual notes played around a string; it is heavily ornamented

Broken style is the same term, though meant for keyboard. Ornaments helped create the illusion tha the instrument is sustaining a sound.

Church cantata
This cantata form was sacred, and popularized by Neumeister and his model; Bach’s cantatas often followed his model.

It had operatic influence, like the oratorio; had both recitative

Lutheran church goers liked this method of teaching church beliefs

Lully 1
Armide Overture



Bombastic opening to glorify the king. Dotted rhythm and restrained, lilting feeling in the strings shows evidence of French court music.

Lully 2
Armide Act II, Scene 5


Recitative and Air

Percussive intro, female soloist, singing in French. Orchestration fits with French opera.

de la Guerre
Suite in A Minor, prelude

Keyboard Suite

Unmeasured Prelude

Solo harpsichord. Free tempo. Extremely ornamented, suggestive of improvization, written in Lute style. Characteristic of French Keyboard Prelude in the Court of Louis XIV.

Purcell 1
Dido and Aeneas, “Thy Hand, Belinda”



Opening shows a simple recitative style. The vocalist is female, and singing in English.

Purcell 2
Dido and Aeneas, “When I am laid in (the) earth”


Ground Bass Aria

Descending bass line, with chromaticisms to increase dramatic tension. Plenty of appogituras. Singing in English.

Clori vezzosa, e bella


Recitative and da Capo Aria

Solo voice in Italian over a continuo, unmeasured
allowing freedom of rhythm and expression.

Corelli 1
Trio Sonata op. 3, no. 2, Grave

Sonata da chiesa

Trio Sonata-Through Composed

Continuo and strings. Slow tempo. Walking bass. Prelude-type movement

Corelli 2
Trio Sonata op. 3, no. 2, Allegro

Sonata da Chiesa

Trio Sonata-Fugal

Heavily Contrapuntal, all strings

Praeludium in E Major BuxWV 141

Organ Prelude


Organ is the biggest cue; sounds improvised, free flowing.

Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in A Minor, op. 3 no. 6, I Allegro

Violin Concerto


Strings and continuo, driving forward sound; repeated notes at the intro. Violin is featured above the rest of the ensemble.

25th Ordre, La visionaire



Full harpsichord sound, not as improvisatory sounding as de la Guerre

J.S. Bach
Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 62


Chorale motet and ritornello

Strong dramatic opening with oboes and, contrapuntal, constant rhythm in bass.

Giulio Ceare Act II Scenes 1-2


Reciative and Da Capo Aria

Sung in italian; high tenor voice coming in before female voice. Obviously operatic from orchestration.