grand opera
middle class spectacle
bel canto
Rossini lyrical singing
Wagner orchestra supercedes vocal, Gesamtkunstwerk, Greek tragedy, rejects Italian opera
character piece
short piano suggests mood
program music
tells story
Rossini opera based on Shakespeare, later Verdi
Symphonie fantastique
Berlioz programmatic symphony devoted to Harriett Smithson, whom he later married and divorced, idee fixe
Symphonie fantastique mvt. 1
Reveries – passions
Symphonie fantastique mvt. 2
A ball (waltz)
Symphonie fantastique mvt. 3
Scene in the fields
Symphonie fantastique mvt. 4
March to the scaffolds (guillotine chord)
Symphonie fantastique mvt. 5
Witches Sabbath
uneven tempo
aria more animated after cantabile
Wagner character motive
piano exercises for teaching, Chopin, Liszt, Debussy
orchestral lied
voice and orchestra, Mahler, Strauss
Die Schone Mullerin
Schubert first song cycle, falls in love with millers daughter along brook
Italian opera
Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, Verdi, arias, emotion
opera featuring everyday people, post-romantic opera tradition more natural
idee fixe
Berlioz recurring theme Berlioz
unity of citizens and traditions through music
The Ring Cycle
Wagner music-drama (Der Ring des Nibelungen): Das Rheingold, Die Walkure, Siegfried, Gotterdammerung
French painting Monet, Ravel and Debussy music
12-tone notes and rhythms
no tonic, Shoenberg, 12-tone
“sound color melody” tone-color change with different instruments, Schoenberg
musique concrete
electronic music using recordings and/or synthesizers, does not require interpretation of notated music
expressionistic half-speaking half-singing voice as in Pierrot Lunaire
The Rite of Spring
Stravinsky ballet music Diaghalev, primitive sacrifice of girl
atonal opera Berg expressionistic Buchner play
Music for Srings, Percussion and Celesta
Bartok 1936
twelve tone music
aka dodecaphonic, systematic ordering by Schoenberg, tone rows, prime
aesthetic trend rejects emotion of Romantic period 1910-1950, traditional forms, includes New Objectivity
late 20th C, Reich, Glass, Adams, reiteration of short phrases
Chales Ives melody and harmony in different keys, also Bartok and Stravinsky
total serialism
duration, intensity, timbre applied to 12-tone techniques
aleatory music
chance music, John Cage, sounds occur randomly, Some of the decisions normally made by a composer are left to chance.
Hindemith “music for use” played by amateurs, or composed for a specific event or purpose
New Objectivity
1920’s movement against the emotional intensity and complexity of the late Romantics and the expressionism of Schoenberg and Berg, accessibility
L’histoire du soldat
Stravinsky ballet with small ensemble of 6 instruments and percussion, dance movements
Pierrot Lunaire
21 song cycle with speaker and small ensemble, atonal Sprechstimme Schoenberg
Schoenberg/Berg in music. Painting distorted
Rite of Spring, deliberate representation of the crude and uncultured
painting Seurat, Klangfarbenmelodie, tone-to-tone relationships ie Webern one note on an instrument points of sound
semi tones, quarter tones seen in Ives, Debussy observed Gamelan
La Mer
Debussy orchestral work 3 movements
Bartok piano collections, progressive in 6 volumes