accompanied singing
orchestral outburst during recit
secco primo
speechlike basso of dry recit
stile antico
Catholic study of old Palestrina style
stile moderno
new 17th C style
Serious composition for organ or harpsichord, using one subject or theme in continuously
larger scale keyboard piece than the ricercare
contrasting sections for keyboard or ensemble
rhythmic themes and liveliness
trio sonata
two treble instruments (usually violins) with basso continuo.
sonata da chiesa
church, could substitute for parts of liturgy
sonata da camera
series of stylized dances
instrumental refrain
full orchestra of concerto
Brandenburg Concertos
J.S. 6 concertos in F-S-F structure (Cothen 1721) different concertino instrumentations
Well-Tempered Klavier
I (1722 Cothen) 24 pairs of preludes and fugues in all keys, demonstrates new tuning system II (1740) 24 more
opera seria
Metastasio (early Classical) opera promotes morality
religious dramatic music incorporating narrative, dialogue, and commentary, no props or costumes
terraced dynamics
sudden forte or piano, a la harpshichord
Italian baroque opera
Continuous or near-continuous singing
Staged, with scenery, costumes, and action, ie. L’Orfeo
opera text
prima pratica
16th C musical rules dominated text
seconda pratica
Baroque Italian text dominated music, broke rules and used dissonances
basso continuo
specifying only melody and bass with figures to indicate chords other than root position, improvised
improvisatory keyboard
improvisatory keyboard, Frescobaldi
refrain variations of bass line
French baroque opera
Lully reconciled with ballet, Divertissements (diversions) of dancing and choral singing were interspersed throughout.
imitative subject
embellished cadence
The Musical Offering
collection of keyboard variations J.S. based on Frederick the Great theme, trio sonata with flute (Leipzig 1747)
Art of Fugue
J.S. 18 canons and fugues based on same subject in d minor, order of difficulty (incomplete Leipzig)
French overture
majestic beginning, then fast, from ballet tradition
da capo aria
ABA form, embellished repeat to display virtuosity, Scarlatti
cantata mass
mass ordinary with no deacon
Missa solemnis
mass ordinary with deacon
passion settings
reenact crucifiction
songs for solo voice with continuo; any setting of strophic poetry
style between aria and recit, Orfeo
speech-song, invented by Peri, steady basso continuo
orchestral suite
ballet dances, inspired by French orchestral music, no standard order
groups of dance movements (ACSOG): 1 Preludes(improvisatory style)2 Allemande (Begins with an upbeat)3 Courante (Triple or compound meter) 4 Sarabande(slow tempo)5 optional 6 Gigue
sacred concerto
dramatic, operatic religious setting that adopted theatrical idiom
cori spezzatti
divided choir (Venice)
Concerto Grosso
small ensemble vs. tutti
the name of the small group in concerto grosso
keyboard collection ie. Goldberg (1741 Leipzig)
B minor mass
J.S. setting of Ordinary, adapted from earlier compositions
chorale prelude
organ settings of chorales
secular solo voice
double exposition form
orchestra plays exposition, then soloist
comedic interlude in Italian comic opera
speech-like singing
string quartet
2 violins, viola, cello 4 mvt. popularized by Haydn, also Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert
Haydn quartets
6 Mozart wrote in Vienna
Beethoven symphony 1
C 1800 normal size, slow intro Haydn-isms “Imitation”
Beethoven symphony 3
Eb Eroica tribute to Napoleon 1803 twice normal size, bigger sound “Externalization”
Beethoven symphony 5
C/c Fate 1805-7
Beethoven symphony 6
F Pastoral programmatic, bird calls, storm, rainbow 5 mvts 1807-8
Beethoven symphony 7
A 1812
Beethoven symphony 9
d/D Choral includes voices, turkish percussion, “Reflection 1823
galant style
modern, not baroque, chic, smooth, easy
opera buffa
comic opera: 6 or more singers, sung throughout, caricatures, Italy
dialogue, comic, German
orchestral 3/4 movement, F-S-F
London Symphonies
Haydn #93-104 invited by Salomon 1791, 95, standard instrumentation 2202 2 2/t…
song cycle
continuous movements story
late baroque elegance, galant style in music
ABACA, last movements
French comic opera, used popular songs (Vaudevilles), spoken dialogue
sonata form
exposition I-V, development (different keys, retrans) recapitulation I (coda), Haydn mastered, defined classical style
minuet and trio
ABA 3/4 dance third movement
joking, fast, evolved from minuet