1300’s in Italy, 14th century madrigals
formes fixes
dance genres: ballade, rondeau, virelai,
Ars Nova
New French style, innovations in notation and rhythm Phillipe de Vitry
Old Hall Manuscript
Mass ordinary settings, primary source of fifteenth-century English polyphony
cantus firmus Mass
cantus firmus tenor is the same as basis for all five mass movements
Missa prolationum
two voices notated but sung by four voices in mensuration canon
points of imitation
quick successive imitative entrances
Martin Luther created devotional songs from secular melodies, wholesome music
Council of Trent
1545-1563 Eliminated tropes and all but four sequences
Only the cantus and tenor were written out, unwritten third voice sang a parallel fourth below
mensuration canon
voices sing at different rates
paraphrase technique
all four voices sing cantus firmus at some point
English equivalent of motet, solo alternates with choir
Full anthem
unaccompanied, contrapuntal
Verse anthem
Verse anthem: for solo voice(s) with organ or viol accompaniment, alternating with passages for full choir
word painting
Josquin expressive technique to reflect meaning in words
plainsong mass
each mass movement based on existing chant
cyclic mass
Grouping Ordinary music into cycles, including Plainsong and Motto
Motto mass
beginning each mass movement with the same musical motive
imitation/parody mass
borrowed material makes it sound “churchy”
Burgundian chanson (Dufay, BInchois)
15th C any polyphonic setting of French secular poem
Franco Flemish chanson (Ockegam, Busynoys)
Three-voice texture in treble-dominated style
Use the formes fixes, especially rondeau
New Generation chanson (Josquin)
Strophic texts, with virtually no use of the formes fixes
Four- or five-voice texture, all voices meant to be sung
All parts equal
Italian secular 4-part late 15th-early 16th C, forerunner of madrigal
secular text setting 5+ voices, Italy to England, through-composed
Lied technique
chorale setting with melody in tenor
Polychoral motets
works for two or more choirs