Philosophical views that emphasiez the value of human beings and rational thought over strict faith. Interested in revival of ancient greek and roman culture and study of things pertaining to human knowledge and experience
Ottaviano Petrucci
First printer of music: published first book of music Harmonice Musices Odhecaton in 1501. Heavily featured Josquin
Harmonice Musices Odhecaton
First book of music, published by Petrucci
Mid 16th century break with the Catholic Church in Germany. Started by Martin Luther and his 95 theses, a series of objections to Catholic practices, which was seen as corrupt and not theologically based: Called into question the sacrements and use of latin in the church
Counter-Reformation/Council of Trent
a series of reforms enacted by the catholic church in response to the protestant reformation
Contenance Angloise
French conception of english musical practice, including the use of 3rds and 6ths in parallel motion and consonant harmony
John Dunstable
English composer active in the first half of the 15th century. Wrote many polyphonic works, especially three part sacred works. used varied consonant sonorities and rhythms
Guillaume du Fay
Most famous composer of early 15th century. Exposed to many kinds of music, and developed a cosmopolitan style. Worked for Phillip the Good of Burgundy
Cantus-firmus mass
a mass in which a preexisting melody (from chant or a secular song) is placed in the tenor part of all movements, and other parts are written around it.
Imitation Mass
mass type associated with Josquin des Prez, also called a parody mass. Invokes the style or sonority of another work without actually borrowing concrete material
Josquin des Prez
Exceptionally famous renaissance composer, worked primarlily in Milan, wrote Madrigals and Masses
Martin Luther
Instigator of the protestant reformation, german monk, priest, and professor of theology. Raised a large number of major objections to catholic practices and started his own prance of Christianity with markedly different worship practices, called Lutheranism
Practice used by Luther and others, where the text of a vocal work is replaced while the music remains essentially the same
Jean Calvin
Founder of the Calvinist denomination of christianity, which was exceptionally strict, with auster worship practices and belief in predestination. The only singing allowed was monophonic scripture settings
Henry VIII/Anglicanism
King of England first half of the 16th century. Separated England from the Catholic Church and established the Anglican church to fascilitate his divorce from Catherine of Aragon. The anglican church was in many ways theologically and practically similar to the Catholic Church, but led by the King of England
a published collection of metrical psalms: a metrical psalm is a rhymed, strophic vernacular translation of a psalm. The bay psalm book is an example of a psalter. it was the first book published in north america
William Byrd
primary composer for the Anglican church: was actually catholic
a polyphonic work in English for Anglican religious services
internal reformation by the Catholic Church in an attempt to purge the excesses and corruption that had caused the protestant reformation. led to a change in the aesthetic style of the period, in search of more accessible art for parishioners
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palastrina
Composer of the pope Marcellus mass, which, according to legend, saved polyphonic music from the axe of the council of Trent
fourteenth century italian poetic form (popularly written by Petrarch) and its musical setting: having two or three stanzas followed by a ritornello. Very popular in the renaissance period. Nearly always through composed, made extensive use of text painting
literal description of text in music used in Madrigals
medieval italian poet very popular in the renaissance, set by many madrigal composers. Wrote sonnets in
a system of notation used for lute or other plucked string instuments that tells teh player which strings to pluck and where to place the fingers on the strings, rather than indicating which notes will result. Tablatures were also used for keyboard instruments until the seventeenth century
Gioseffo Zarlino
musician and theorist strained at St. Mark’s Cathedral in Venice. Wrote Le Istitutuioni Harmoniche
Le Istitutioni Harmoniche
an influential book on counterpoint, harmonic theory, and dissonance resolution written 1558. Later part of a controversy surrounding the works of Monteverdi, who argued that it represented “prima practica” in which music is given primacy over text, and that there existed a “seconda practica”, in which music is subservient to text
a group of instruments, usually from the same family in different sizes, but sometimes from a variety of families, that form a performing ensemble
Symphonic Poem
a one movement programmatic orchestral work with sections of contrasting character and tempo, with several themes that are varied and transformed. often content and form are suggested by a story or art from another medium (such as a picture or sculpture), suggested by the title or included in a program
Idee Fixe
term coined by Hector Berlioz for a melody that is used throughout a piece to represent a person, thing, or idea, transforming to suit the mood and situation. Specifically refers to the theme representing the beloved in in Symphony Fantastique
Absolute Music
term coined by Wagner for music that is independent of words, drama, visual images, or any kind of representational aspect. the opposite of programmatic music. Comes into discussion in the 19th century as programatic music becomes more popular
Janissary Music
music evocative of a turkish military band. used in Beethoven’s 9th symphony.
Third relation
refers to a type of modulation popular in romantic symphonies in which instead of modulating to the dominant, a work (especially a symphony) modulates by thirds
a type of Italian dance popular in Naples, and used in Mendelssohn’s Italian symphony
a young male singer who is castrated before puberty to preserve his high voice, and create an enlarged chest cavity for greater lung capacity. very popular in opera in the baroque and early classical era
Concerto Grosso
Orchestral form popular in the baroque era for full orchestra and a small group of soloists. Makes use of contrast in sonorities between large and small performing forces
instrumental genre for small ensemble (String quartet). Generally intended as background music for aristocratic social gatherings. Usually five movements: Allegro, minuet, lyrical slow, minuet, dance (Gigue).
musical style from era between Baroque and Classical, featuring songlike melodies, short phrases, frequent cadences, and light accompaniment
Intellectual movement in the mid eighteenth century that emphasized ideals of reason, nature, and progress. Focused on scientific advancement. brought universal feel to music, interest in universal education. Ideas of individual rights and personal freedom. promoted social equality, de-emphasized the church
Sturm ud Drang
Literally “storm and stress” musical style that emphasized heightened emotional expression. Used by Haydn, Mozart, CPE Bach, reaction to what was viewed as excessive simplicity of the enlightenment. Precursor to Romanticism
extremely wealthy and powerful Hungarian family who kept Haydn as a court composer for nearly thirty years. Supplied Haydn with money, performance spaces, instruments, and performers. Haydn was expected to run performances, keep instruments in good repair, and compose for the court. Esterhazy princes were avid musicians
Querelle des Bouffons
literally “argument of fools” protracted arguement in France over whether French or Italian opera was better. Sparked by a performance of Pergolesi’s La Serva Padrona, which some saw as superficial
Lorenzo da Ponte
popular opera librettist from Venice. Worked primarily in Vienna, wrote libretti for Cosi Fan Tutte, The Marriage of Figaro, and Don Giovanni. Works had a variety of deep and intricate characters
Alberti Bass
1-3-5-3-1-3-5-3: Accompaniment with broken chords common in the second half of the eighteenth century. Named after Domenico Alberti
Thematic Transformation
Using the same theme modified to fit within a new context: gives musical or dramatic continuity to a work. Used as a narrative device in tone poems. Liszt
Total Artwork– Idea posited by Wagner of all art forms working together to create one expressive whole. Applied to his operas, in which all aspects (set and costume design, music, libretto) are intended to enhance the ideas being expressed
Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik
Newsletter founded and published by Schumann, for music criticism. Promotes new composers and features the Davidsbund (Characters created by schumann to express his musical ideas and the ideals of the romantic era)
musical theme or motive associated with a person or idea. Credited to Wagner, who used them extensively in his operas to create musical and dramatic continuity in his operatic works. Example: The ring theme from The Ring Cycle, which appears throughout all four operas whenever the ring is present or mentioned
Nadezhda von Meck
Patron of Tchaikovsky, who provided him with 6000 rubles a year until 1890 on the condition that they never met. His fourth symphony is dedicated to her. Also promoted Debussy
a recurring passage in a song, first appearing simply and then with greater variation on reappearances. (In an aria)
Cavatina is the slow lyrical part, and Cabaletta is the fast part
Doctrine of Ethos
Belief that musical modes affect the personality or mood of the listener. Very popular in ancient Greece and Rome, and espoused by many prominent philosophers, including Plato and Boethius
Liturgy/Liturgical Calendar
the prescribed body of texts to be spoken or sung and ritual actions to be performed in a religious ceremony, in this case, the mass and offices of the catholic church, dictated by the time of year within the church calendar
Plainsong/Gregorian Chant
Chants developed by the early Catholic Church as important parts of the mass, with standardized chant melodies or improvisational practices. Disseminated throughout Europe, after legendarily being given to pope Gregory by the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove
St Augustine/Confessions
one of the fathers of the church, Augustine wrote a long book that was essentially an autobiography, and debated many theological issues. Weighted in on the value of music as part of a church service, saying that while it may distract with sensual pleasure, ultimately music helps new churchgoers connect emotionally to music
Guido of Arezzo/Solmization
author of the micrologus, and inventor of the guidonian hand, by which steps in the scale are assigned syllables and placement on the hand, used to make it easier to identify and sing the whole tones and semitones in a melody. Process called solmization
Catholic service reenacting the last supper, used to disseminate Christian doctrine. Has many sections that come in two types: Ordinary and Proper: Ordinary has the same text no matter the time of year. Includes Kyrie, Gloria Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei. Proper changes based on the liturgical calendar
Divine Office
Official set of daily prayers and services to be performed at specific times throughout the day and night in monasteries. Psalms, hymns, and readings
St. Benedict
Catholic Saint: established the rule of st. benedict, dictating practices for living in monasteries that are called Benedictine monasteries
Liturgical Dramas
Dialogue on a sacred subject, set to music and usually performed with action, linked to the liturgy, sometimes performed in church. Important contributors to the genre include Hildegard von Bingen
French secular musicians, poets, and composers, worked in courts in the twelfth and thirteenth century. Wrote monophonic songs
one of several styles of early polyphony from the ninth through the thirteenth centuries, involving the addition of one or more voices to an existing chant
Polyphonic vocal composition: specific meaning changes over time. in Medieval Period involved adding a new line of text to an existing discant clausula. Feature two or more voices, sometimes as many as five
Cantus Firmus
an existing melody, often taked form a gregorian chant, on which a new polyphonic work is based, used especially for melodies presented in long notes
Papal Schism
Split within the Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417 based on political conflicts between the french and the italians. led to a period of time in which there were two popes, one in avignon and one in rome, who excommunicated each other. Very harmful to the credibility of the Catholic Church
repetition in a voice part of an extended pattern of durations throughout a section or an entire composition. In two types: Talea and Color. Talea is a repeated rhythmic unit and color is a repeated melodic unit
from the italian word for hiccup. polyphonic device of alternating rapidly between two voices each resting while the other sings
Formes Fixes
schemes of poetic and musical repetition, featuring bar form, and a refrain. taken from dance forms. Forms are virelai, ballade, and rondeau
Ars Subtilior
“Subtle art” style of polyphony marked by extreme rhythmic complexity
Musica Ficta
notes outside the standard gamus, and the practice of raising or lowering pitch of a written note by a semitone, particularly at a cadence
Tone Cluster
a chord made up of major and minor seconds. Term coined by Henry Cowell, who developed them by pressing the piano keys with the fist and forearm in his experimental work The Tides of Manaunaun, and used in many compositions that followed. Also used by Bartok
Arch Form
A sectional structure based on repetition of musical sections in reverse order, such that the overall form of a work is symmetric, usually around a central point. Sections need not be identical but must at least share stylistic or thematic material. Used significantly in Bartok’s String Quartet no. 4
use of pitches separeted by intervals smaller than a half-step, most commonly quarter tones. Used by Penderecki, and occastionally Bloch and Britten. Expanded by Harry Parch, who invented a 43-scale using intervals smaller than 1/6 step. he designed a keyboard to play this scale, and many other instruments that can play microtonally
Musique Concrete
Music composed by assembling and manipulating recorded sounds. Working with “Concrete” sounds rather than notation. Developed in Paris in the 1940s
Total Serialsim
Applying techniques of serial composition (composition using the dodecaphonic method) to aspects of music other than pitch, including duration, intensity, dynamics, and timbres
a musical technique using a small amount of music or sound, repeated constantly on two instruments (or electronic recordings). As they are repeated, one of the two recordings or instruments moves slightly ahead, such that the two become increasingly out of sync, leading to slowly changing rhythms and textures. First used with recorded samples, although piano phases and violin phases have also been created
Common Practice Period v. Most Recent Century
the period from the baroque to the romantic period, generally thought of as 1600-1900. The 20th century is generally thought of as being outside this period, for though there are many stylistic similarieties between some 20th century music and music of the common practice period, the 20th century is marked by the breaking of the traditional rules of harmony and counterpoint, to create a wide variety of new musical styles
Functional Tertian Harmony v. Nonfunctional Tertian harmony
Tertian harmony is harmony built from thirds. Chords built from thirds can either be used functionally, such that they are used to establish a tonal center and resolve tensions toward tonic, or nonfunctionally, such that there is not necessarily a key center, and dissonances do not resolve according to the normal laws of partwriting.
Theory emphasizing the role of reasoning in knowledge and science as foundational
Basso Continuo, Thoroughbass
Baroque system of notation and performance in which an instrumental bass line is written out for keyboard and lute players to fill in harmonically through improvisation. An instrument or ensemble for playing the same
a passage from an opera written with recitative style which is intended to mimic speech sounds and speed dialogue by following natural speech rhythms and maintaining a minimal accompaniment, usually held chords with chord changes to accent important words or syllables
Bel Canto
literally “beautiful singing” a style of singing commonly found in opera in the 17th and 19th centuries. Characterized by florid ornamentation and lyric melodies to show off the skills of the singer
a vocal chamber work with continuo, usually for solo voice, in several sections or movements, including recitatives and arias, usually setting a lyrical or semi-dramatic text
genre of dramatic vocal music performance, similar to opera, but with no staging and performed with music in hand. Developed and popularized by Handel in London. Usually on a religious subject. Combines narrative, dialogue, and commentary through arias, recitatices, ensembles, and choruses with instrumental music
a set of pieces linked together into a single work. Usually a set of stylized dances
Jean Baptiste Lully
court composer and superintendent of music for the King’s Chamber to King Louis XIV of France. Worked with 24 violin ensemble (Vingt-quatre Violons do Roi), outdoor wind band, centralized French music practice, established orchestral discipline and ornamentational practices, pioneered french opera and the overture. a powerful and influential figure in Baroque France
Tragedie Lyrique
French dramatic opera form pioneered by Lully. Includes an overture, usually in five acts. Combines French dramatic and ballet traditions
Da Capo aria
aria form popular in the baroque era, vehicle for singer virtuosity. in two (ABA) sections, with the first section repeated at the end (Da Capo) heavily ornamented
popular compositional form, usually found in baroque church music, that uses an imitated theme (called a subject( introduced successively in each voice, at the tonic and the fifth.
Arcangelo Corelli
famous Italian composer, helped establish many standard forms, styles, and techniques. Violinist and composer, teacher and director: led one of Italy’s first orchestras, became a model. Laid foundation for standard 18th century violin teaching. Published trio sonatas, violin sonatas, and concerti grossi
George fridereic Handel
german composer, spent much of his career in London, where he gained great fame for his English oratorios and Italian operas. Adept on many instruments
Ballad Opera
Baroque english play with music. borrowed tunes from popular songs and added new words
Johann Sebastian Bach
German composer violinist and organist from a large faily of musicians. Worked as organist, concertmanster, and kappelmeister, for several german courts and churches. Wrote many works in most all genres except opera. Known for his counterpoint
Well-Tempered Clavier
a set of 24 prelude and fugue pairs (one in each major and minor key) composed by Bach. Demonstrates the ability of an even tempered instrument to play in any key