When did the concerto emerge, and out of what genre did it come from?
-Late 17C Italy
-Trio Sonata
What is a concerto?
-a work for small group featuring four contrasting movements
-concerto is larger and features a clearer divide between soloist and ensemble
What are the two major types of concerto?
Concerto grosso: small group of solo instruments contrasts with larger ensemble

Solo concerto: single instrument set against large ensemble

How many concertos did Antonio Vivaldi write, and primarily for what instrument?
wrote about 500 concertos, most for violin
general traits of Antonio Vivaldi
Venetian music master; works as violinist, composer, conductor
What form is the first movement of the classical concerto?
double-exposition form
The Classical Concerto is similar to sonata-allegro form except:
-First and second theme groups initially stated in tonic by orchestra alone

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-Soloist follows with TG1 in tonic, then TG2 in second key area (hence “double exposition”)

-Cadenza (extended virtuosic display for soloist) occurs near the end of the recapitulation before the final resolution to the tonic

General traits of Felix Mendelssohn:
-Among the most classically-oriented Romantic composers

-Arguably the most popular composer of his generation

-Significant figure outside the realms of performance and composition

What are Haydn’s two most significant areas of accomplishment?
symphony and string quartet
Haydn’s symphonies establish conventional forms for each of the four movements. What are they?
-First- sonata-allegro

-Second- free form (through-composed, sonata, variations…)

-Third- minuetto-trio (i.e. ternary)

-Fourth- rondo or sonata

Under Haydn, Orchestra comprised of four roughly equal groups and contrasts with what?
-Strings, winds, percussion and brass

-Contrasts with string dominated Baroque orchestras

Haydn Extends certain pre-Classical traits in what five ways?
-Dramatic dynamic contrasts

-Syncopation and other rhythmic disruptions

-Sharing of themes among instrumental sections

-Occasionally surprising modulations

-Wittiness and humor

Who was Hector Berlioz?
a composer and critic
What country was Bedrich Smetana the first internationally-renowned composer from?
Bohemia (Czech Republic)
Where does Bedrich Smetana draw his cultural nationalism from?
Draws up distinctive local sources (musical, literary, geographical) for his inspiration
Who is to ballet what Verdi and Wagner are to opera?
Who is the only major 19C Russian composer with a formal conservatory education?
Who worked at Moscow Cons. before attaining a stipend from Nadezhda von Meck?
Name 3 ballets Tchaikovsky wrote.
Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty, The Nutcracker
Gustav Mahler was the last of what?
The Romantics: many romantic qualities exaggerated or expanded in his own works
What was Gustav Mahler?
conductor and composer; more famous during his life as conductor
What is Impressionism?
-Initially a pejorative term taken from painting

-Critics saw a parallel between the paintings and Debussy’s aural “indistinctness”

-Associated broadly with members of the French avant-garde near the end of the 19C

What was Claude Debussy and where did he study?
Pianist and composer, educated at the Paris Conservatoire
How did Debussy combine progressive and conservative traits?
-Studied Bach, Mozart, early Beethoven while playing Liszt, Schumann, Chopin

-Also interested in new Russian and French music, as well as non-western traditions

Who used revolutionary treatment of rhythm and meter?
Igor Stravinsky
What is Primitivism and who used it?
-Musical style characterized by the use of often simple, repetitive, folk-like materials and themes

-Strongly percussive, driving, or accented rhythms are very typical

What are Webern Style Traits?
Works are very short, Melodies with wide dissonant intervals, Consecutive wide leaps in the same direction, Many rests, Prevailingly soft dynamics, “Pointillistic” orchestration, extended techniques common, contrapuntal textures
Webern’s Op. were tonal up to:
Op. 1
Webern’s Op. were atonal from:
Opp. 2-16
Webern’s Op. were serial from:
Serial 17-31
Who were the three members of the Second Viennese School?
Schoenberg, Berg, Webern
True or False: Anton Webern was a Miniaturist
Who was one of the most celebrated American composers of all time?
Aaron Copland
Who began his career as an avant-gardist, but achieved greatest success with “New Simplicity?”
Aaron Copland
What are the traits of New Simplicity and who used it?
-Brilliant yet delicate string-dominated orchestration

-Quartal and quintal harmonies that may have strongly tonal tendencies

-Use of folk materials

-Gradual development of short motives or tunes

-Rhythmically propulsive

-used by Aaron Copland

This composer unites elements of eastern and western classical traditions
Bright Sheng
traits of Bright Sheng
-long, flowing melodies that make use of the pentatonic scale

-glissandi and ornamentation evoking sounds of Chinese string instruments

-complex polyphonic textures

What is postmodernism?
stylistic inclusivity that draws upon multiple, sometimes apparently contradictory, artistic practices in a collage-like manner
what is minimalism?
extended development of a deliberately (and often severely) limited amount of musical material
Who was a postmodern minimalist?
John Adams
What is John Williams’ music renowned for?
memorable, sweeping themes and lush, often brass-dominated orchestration
what does john Williams do?
-conductor and composer for TV, film, and concert hall
one of few film composers to also achieve mainstream classical sucess
John Williams