What did the great poets and philosophers begin referring to the time after 1750 as? What is significant about the date 1750?
The Age of Enlightement; death day of Bach.
The Classical Era roughly encompasses what years?
What is the term applied to the transition from the Baroque style to the full flowering of the Classical and what composers were important pioneers in this new style?
Preclassical; CPE Bach and Johann Bach
What style in music entertained listeners with contrasts of mood and theme, was light and graceful in character and is comparable to the rococo style in art?
Style Galant
Why is the term Classical so confusing?

There are 4 different definitons of the word classical.

  1. antiquity – Greece/Rome
  2. not popular music
  3. 18th and 19th Century
  4. something of lasting value

What three composers exemplify the fully developed Classical style?
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven
What is the general nature of the rhythmic patterns in a Classical piece?
flexibility of rhythm

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What texture is predominant in the Classical Era?


Give two main characteristics of Classical melody

  1. tuneful and easy
  2. balaced and symmetrical

What Baroque device was gradually abandoned as more and more music was written for amateurs?
Basso Continuo
What did the typical orchestra of the Classical period consist of?
strings, woodwinds, brass, percussion
Instrumental compositions of the Classical Period usually consist of several _____________ that contrast in tempo and character.
What performing group is the symphony written for?
the orchestra – strings, pairs of woodwinds, pairs of horns, pairs of trumpets, timpany
What are the instruments in a string quartet?
2 violins, viola, cello
What three main wars were occurring during the 70 years between 1750 and 1820, which created such political and social upheaval?

  1. American Revolution
  2. French Revolution
  3. Napoleonic Wars

What was one f the musical centers in Europe during the Classical Period that Haydn, Mozart, and Beetoven were active in?
What are the three main sections of the sonata or sonata-allegro form?

  1. Exposition – introduces 2 themes
  2. Development
  3. Recapitulation – see the 2 themes again and final ending

What is the optional ending composers often attach to the end of a sonata movement?
a coda

What are the broken fragments of a theme called?


What was the name of the individual who created the standard catalog of Mozart’s compostions?
Ludwig von K;chel
Theme and variations form may be schematically outlined as what?
A A’ A” A”‘
Each variations is usually the same length as the theme, but what can differ?

the character

  1. varry the melody
  2. rhythm
  3. harmony
  4. accompanament
  5. dynamics, tone color

In what way does a scherzo differ from a minuet? In what two ways are they the same?

Same – triple meter, ABA form

different – scherzo is faster

A set of 33 variations written by Beethoven are called the ________________.
Diabelli Variations
What composer was fond of replacing the minuet with the scherzo for the 3rd movement of a four-movement work?
Write the tempos or styles and order of the movements in a typical symphony

  1. fast – vigorious
  2. slow – lyrical
  3. dance related – minuet or scherzo
  4. fast – brilliant/heroic

The minuet and trio are generally used in what movement in a classical symphony?
3rd Movement
write the schematics for Rondo form
What was the great contribution of the classical period to orchestral music?
the symphony
What is the form and tempo of the first movements in most classical symphonies?
fast; sonata form
What is a classical concerto?
A three movement work for an instrumental soloist and orchestra
Who are the greatest composers of the Classical concerto and what was their favorite solo instrument?
Mozart and Beethoven; the piano
Define a cadenza and tell where they are often found
an unaccompanied showpiece for the soloist; near the end of the 1st and sometimes last movement.
What was the most important form in classical Chamber Music? How many movements did it most often have? What is its instruments?
string quartet; 4 movements (fast, slow, minuet/scherzo, fast); 2 violins, viola, cello
Who was Joseph Haydn’s employer for most of his life?
the Esterhazys family, the richest Hungarian noble family.
How many string quartets and symphonies did Joseph Haydn compose?
68 quartets, 104 symphonies
For what composition types is Haydn considered the pioneer in the development?
the symphony and the string quartet
List at least 4 other genres of music that Haydn composed
piano sonatas, piano trios, divertimentos, concertos, operas, and masses.
Mozart was continually on tour between what ages?
On tours to which country did mozart master the current operatic style?
List the forms which Mozart composed in
symphonies, string quartets, piano concertos, opera
When Mozart was 25, he became a freelance musician in what famous city?
Don Giovanni is a combination of what two types of opera?
Comic and serious
What opera was a great success in Mozart’s last year of life?
Die ZauberFrote (The Magic Flute)
Who finished Mozart’s Requiem?
Franz Sussmayer
To whom did Beethoven originally commemorate his 3rd symphony to as a symbol of heroism and democratic ideals?
Napoleon Bonaparte
Beethoven was the heir of Haydn and Mozart and considered the bridge between what two musical eras?
Classical and Romantic
How did the endings of Beethoven’s symphonies differe from the endings of Haydn’s and Mozart’s symphonies?
climactic and triumphant vs. light and relaxed
What are Beethoven’s most popular works?
9 symphonies
What is considered unusual and unprecedented in Beethoven’s 9th symphony?
using a chorus and 4 solo voices
What is the title of Beethoven’s only opera?
What poet bases the Beethoven’s 9th symphony on a poem on human brotherhood?
Ode to Joy by Schiller
Beethoven opened up ___________________________ and profoundly influenced composers throught the_____________.
new realms of musical expression; 19th century (romantic era)
Beethoven was never actually in the service of the aristocracy, but made his money in what ways?
fees from giving piano and violin lessons, and publishers bought his composition
Beethoven was stricken with what malady starting in his 29th year?