non-pulsitile songs; asymmetric meters; repetitive dance rhythms with isorhythm; bright timbres; epic songs; socialist realism
characteristics of hungarian folk music
bela bartok
young hungarian composer that “discovered” the folk music of his home and brought it to the eastern european music world.
short rhythms repeat even as the melody notes change
assymetrical meters
complex meters with beast that quickly change duration; characteristic to music of the balkans and bulgaria
socialist realism
aesthetic style during the communist period where the arts served the state; enforced to greater or lesser degrees professional composition and so-called folk ensembles
settled between 5th and 9th centuries; became known as gypsies because of a mistaken notion that they originated in egypt; many different Romani groups with distinct dialects and musical traditions are scattered throughout europe
hungarian folk music historical background
proper name for the “Gypsies”; formed their own distinctive musical culture
romani bands that featured violins and bagpipes and cimbalom; comes from the hungarian military word for “recruiting”
the hammered zither that replaced bagpipes in verbunkos; came from turkey
national dance of hungary; fast and slow tempos in simple duple meter
anhemitonic pentatonic scale
characteristic of hungarian folk song; scale of five pitches per octave with no semitones
italian term meaning free speech rhythm; prominent rhythmic type in hungarian folk songs; heavily ornamented; emphasize emotional expression and the meaning of the text
italian term meaning strict tempo; prominent rhythmic type in hungarian folk music; emphasize repetitive dance rhythms
hammered zither; highly cultivated instrument that rivals piano in hungarian homes
plucked zither with frets similar to german and scandanavian zithers
shepherd’s vertical duct flute; versions reach up to meter in length; performers sometimes murmur and hum while playing, creating a distinctive timbre
hungarian dance clubs; name comes from the traditional village music hall; literally means “dance houses”
vocal percussion created by mouth sounds; literally means “mouth bass”; also a type of Romani dance song
bulgarian circle dances; lively and energetic communal activities
bulgarian rim-blown flute held at an angle in front of the player; related to middle eastern nay flute
bulgarian pear-shaped vertical bowed fiddle with three strings; occasionally has sympathetic strings as well
bagpipe with a drone pipe and a melody pipe; well known for its virtuosic ornamentation; popular instrument with for weddings and outdoor celebrations
bulgarian long-necked fretted lute with four strings or double courses
bulgarian large cylindrical bass drum, slung across the body and played with two sticks
calendar songs
russian songs for a particular holiday or season
repetition of rhythmic motives while the notes of the melody change; used in russian music
table songs
russian songs sung traditionally around the table at a party or a banquet; include improvised polyphony of up to four parts
russian lute with frets and a distincitive triangular sound body
russian lute with a round sound body, usually used to strum chords
russian plucked zither described as having a wing shape; thought to have come originally from byzantium in middle ages similar to the kanun of present-day Turkey
russian button accordian; popular instrument since 19th century now found in many folk bands
russian small single-reed shepherds pipe; sometimes appears with double pipes
igor stravinsky
most famous european art music composer of the 20th century; inaugurated the modernist style of music in the early 20th century; interested in the folklore and folk music of his country
formula song
type of song found in traditional russian wedding ceremonies; consists for of short repeating rhythms and motives repeated over and over, sometimes with isorhythm and sometimes in assymetric meters
more than one tonality at a time
different simultaneous meters