Theory of Affects
“state of soul”; Each piece expresses only one state of soul. This led to exploring the use of violent contrast and dissonance.
Baroque Period
1600-1750: first opera – death of Bach; characterized by exaggeration, gaudiness. Rise of complex styles, dissonance, direct connection between words and music, nationalism, imitation of the ancients. Music expresses human emotion and not the emotion of the writer. Return of homophony.
Art of Rhetoric
The effective presentation or communication of ideas through the spoken or written word.
Giulio Caccini
singer, organist; “invented” swells in dynamics. Wrote preface for _Le nuove musiche_ about the return to classicism in the projection of text.
Le nuove musiche
Compilation by Caccini with an introduction that describes the purpose, intent and proper performance of monody.
Solo vocal line with simple instrumental accompaniment.
Music composed for breaks in Baroque drama. These breaks got longer and more popular until they were combined with the drama to form the genre of opera.
Basso continuo, figured bass
Instrumental accompaniment in Baroque monody. Only symbols indicating the harmonic structure of the music were provided, and the musicians improvised the accompaniment.
Claudio Monteverdi
Innovative Baroque composer who overcame hardships in life. Became famous for his madrigals which were hailed as “too radical” and his opera “Orfeo,” which is considered the first great opera.
Prima prattica
“First practice”: The name given by Baroque composers to the music written during the Renaissance.
Seconda prattica
“Second practice”: The name given to the music written in the Baroque style by those composers wishing to distance themselves from the Renaissance. This style based music on the words, which allowed for more dissonance and brought the music back in line with the ideals of the classics from the ancients.
Nine books of madrigals
Collection of madrigals written by Monteverdi. The music was attacked as being too radical.
Monteverdi’s first opera. It is considered the first great opera.
Served as climax to recitative. Accompanied by full orchestra; was meant to express the emotion of the character. Music had a clearer sense of rhythm and patterns than the recitative.
Music was written to imitate speech of the words. Fused speech and music as inseparable, communicated both to intellect and emotion. Few patterns in text, rhythm and melody.
Jean-Baptiste Lully
Pivotal in development of French Opera. Developed French Overture, coordinated use of ornaments, started uniform bowing, brought much more discipline to orchestra rehearsal and performance as conductor of French national orchestra.
Opera written by Jean-Baptiste Lully.
French Overture
“opening” Welcome for King’s entrance; 2 sections: 1)homophonic, majestic, dotted rhythms, upbeat figure rushing toward the downbeat 2)faster, begins with a flourish of fugal imitation.
Dotted rhythms typical of French Overture.
notes inegales
“unequal notes” lengthen first of pair of eighth notes, either as swung eighths or as dotted eighth, sixteenth
Man who was castrated to preserve his high voice in order to sing the woman’s parts. Also apparently had much better breath support than women.
Opera seria
“serious opera” Form of opera that was a response to the new half-tragedy, half-comedy opera. Aimed to be more systematic in its composition. Had three acts with no prologue. Recitative led up to aria, and number of arias depended on social rank and importance to the plot of the character.
Pietro Metastasio
Greatest French librettist. Controlled virtually all of the texts in French operas to a point where he could decide who succeeded and who did not.
Chaconne, Passacaglia
Variations in basso continuo patterns in Baroque music.
Composed only instrumental music and was one of the main developers of the sonata. Was accomplished violinist, but also became famous for his teaching practices.
Instrumental work. Started as interlude between vocal works. Developed into self-contained, multi-movement work. Often for small ensemble. 2 types: da camara and da cluesa.
Suite, partita
Solo sonata for instrument. Can be solo or solo w/ basso continuo. No less than 4 mov’ts.
Italian composer credited with invention of solo concerto, helped develop its basic forms.
Italian composer who taught in an orphanage for young women. Wrote 500 concertos. Four Seasons was a programmatic work set to poetry.
Concerto grosso
Chamber ensemble (concertino) with fuller orchestra (concerto grosso)
Solo concerto
Solo instrument with full orchestra.
Ritornello form
Baroque form that uses alternation between solo sections and sections with the full orchestra. Theme is called ritornello. Often, key is modulated to the dominant.
German composer known during his lifetime for his Italian operas. Now known for his oratorios. First to use English text in oratorios.
English oratorio
Musical work telling a story in English without costume, staging, etc. “Religious opera” told lives of saints; provided entertainment in place of opera during Lent.
German composer who enjoyed limited fame as a composer during his lifetime. Composed instrumental polyphony and German cantatas. More famous for keyboard skills. Works were criticized as too dissonant. Did not become famous as composer until St. Matthew Passion was discovered by Mendelssohn.
German vocal work. Lutheran equivalent of one-act opera performed during the church service.
Well-Tempered Clavier
Bach’s compilation of preludes and fugues in all 24 major and minor keys.
Baroque genre: strictly instrumental; often imitative.
Baroque dances
Allemande: opener, moderato; Courante: triple meter, fast; Sarabonde: triple, slow, 2nd beat; Gigue: closer, fastest