Where did the Austin High Gang get it’s name from?
The white teens attended Austin High school in Chicago came up with it in 1923.
Who were the musicians that made up the band Austin High Gang?
Benny Goodman
Gene Krupa
Eddie Condon
Where was the Austin High Gang based in?
What are the musical characteristics of Chicago Style music?
Rhythmically aggressive (resulting from Krupa’s drumming style, and there was more emphasis on solo playing, though themes were still presented polyphonically.
What is the connection between Chicago Style music and the Austin High Gang?
They were the ones to develop a variation of New Orleans Jazz, called “Chicago” style.
What is the typical size of the Swing style ensemble?
typically a larger ensemble, like “big bands”
What are the two commercial elements from swing music?
1. simpler texture (ie. homophony rather than the polyphony of collective improvisation)
2. simple, clearly-defined melodies, often making use of riffs
What is the relation between teenagers and swing style?
Teenagers made the swing style a national craze, picking up its slang, african-oriented dance patterns, and shorter skirts. critics considered the music “orchestrated sex”.
Why was improvisation decreased during swing style times?
The use of larger bands made it difficult to use improvisation, which increased reliance on notation and arranging, which facilitated.
What was Benny Goodman’s nickname?
“The King of Swing”
In terms of Goodman, what does the word “book” mean?
set of arrangements. he purchased arrangements by Fletcher Henderson, who also wrote new works for Goodman’s band.
What song did Benny Goodman use Henderson’s book for?
“Let’s Dance”
what is the definition of Jam sessions?
an informal gathering of Jazz (or rock) musicians, who play for their own pleasure (rather than for audiences pleasure or commercial gain)
What is the definition/purpose of a cutting contest?
a competition between either bands or soloists (on same instrument), to determine who has superior skill/virtuosity, stamina, expressivity.
Who was Chick Webb?
an african american drummer and bandleader who “ruled” at the savoy.
What was Chuck Webb’s association with the Savoy?
He ruled it from 1927-1939 because his band was considered one of the outstanding groups of the swing era, even though they didn’t have any distinctive instrumental soloists.
There was gender inequality in the swing era. How did this affect women?
females performed in their own bands, were paid less than male bands, and were criticized more harshly in the press.
There was also vocal inequality in the swing era. how did this affect vocalists?
they were typically ranked lower than instrumentalists, most often paid less, whether female or male because they were considered a concession to popular taste and the category was stereotypically associated with women.
Who were some of the white swing bands led by?
benny goodman
artie shaw
glenn miller
jimmy and tommy dorsey
who were some of the african american swing bands led by?
Fletcher henderson
duke ellington
chick web
count basie
jimmie lunceford
fats waller and cab calloway
what are the musical characteristics of “boogie-woogie”?
1. use of blues chords and chord progressions
2. use of forceful vamps in the left hand: several standard patterns exist, but a walking bass in broken octaves is the most common, these typically have 8 notes per bar.
what is the definition of territory bands?
touring bands that worked in a geographical area no more than a day’s drive from their headquarters.
what was mary lou williams role in andy kirk’s band?
She was the talent behind Kirk’s band, she was a pianist, arranger, and composer. the success of Clouds of Joy was based largely on the quality of her arrangements, compositions, and solos.
how did Tom Pendergast influence Kansas City in the 1930’s?
He led political corruption during the depression, which caused kansas city jazz to flourish
How did kansas city flourish during the Depression?
brothels, gambling joints, speakeasies/clubs, flourished in downtown area, as well as in black neighborhoods nearby and all had jobs for musicians, which resulted in the creation of a unique Jazz style.
what are the musical characteristics of kansas city jazz?
emphasis on the saxophone, call and response between reeds and brass, lots of syncopation, reliance on head arrangements (rather than written out notation), which facilitated: soloistic improvisation, rhythmic drive, extensive use of riffs, cultivation of walking bass lines.
what is the association between kansas city jazz and count basie?
count basie is the figure most associated with the kansas city style, and joined the kansas city band of benny moten, which played in the stereotypical style of kansas city jazz.
What was Duke Ellington’s role of timbre in his orchestration?
he sought players with quirky and unique sounds, composed in collaboration with band members, adopting their interpretations and suggestions, older compositions were also revised to mirror the strengths of the new players.
What is the association between duke ellington and billy strayhorn?
Ellington was joined by Billy Strayhorn in the late 30’s/early 40’s who co-composed with him.
Why did the Nazis dislike Jazz?
it’s historically aligned with blacks, and some of the biggest contemporary names were Jews.
What was the importance of Coleman Hawkins?
he used harmonic improvisation rather than melodic paraphrase, and used arpeggios.
what was the reaction with Bebop against swing and its working climate
instrumentalists moved to the background while singers moved to the front, but abandoned dream of heading up big bands and then retreated to night clubs.
What is the association between bebop and small clubs/bars?
it was intended for listening, not dancing, it was a reshaping of jazz in small clubs for late night public consumption.
what are the musical characteristics of bebop?
fast tempo and quick rhythms, technically difficult, increased usage of both dissonance and extended harmonies, rhythm has drumming style where ride cymbals provide the pulse, soloists have unpredictable beats and rhythm, unexpected intervals, and phrasing runs through the chord changes rather than lining up with them.
What is minton’s playhouse’s association with Bebop?
it hosted some of the most celebrated jam sessions of the 1940’s, and the musicians union wanted performers to stop recording until recording companies started paying performers, thus the first bebop recording was not until 1945.
what instrument did Charlie Parker play?
an alto saxophone
What were some of the great musical traits that Charlie Parker brought to Jazz history?
his use of harmonic improvisation and licks, had a repertory of 100-ish licks.
When considering diversity, what occurred during the swing era?
the swing ensembles were mainly integrated.
What was the racial makeup of the Savoy?
admitted all races, though african americans predominated.
Were the cutting contests segregated or not in the Savoy?
the jam sessions and cutting contests were always segregated ensembles.
Why did the Harlem residents claim The Savoy was closed?
because of the segregated ensembles and the african american dominance.
who was the first person to stage interracial jazz performances?
Benny Goodman
who had to bill their African American performers as “special guests?”
Benny Goodman
Which ensembles were featured at the Jazz at Carnegie Hall in 1938?
Count Basie, Goodman’s orchestra, and featured guitarist charlie christian were all featured at the jazz at carnegie hall in 1938.
What was the racial makeup of the ensembles performed at carnegie hall in 1938?
Who fostered the careers of numerous jazz musicians, including african americans?
John Hammond
Who promoted interracial ensembles?
John Hammond
Why did African Americans spend more time on tour than white bands?
White bands were able to get extended gigs at hotels and ballrooms but AfAm bands had to travel continuously, and occasionally became targets of racial violence due to their success.
What were the problems facing African American Jazz touring the south?
the southern blacks gouged black bands because of financial desperation, resentment of perceived wealth, the success of some bands caused resentment in southern whites who took it out on the southern blacks and make southern blacks incite violence against band members.
how did duke ellington cultivate race awareness in his music?
he used means of verbal statements, as well by work titles/topics to cultivate race consciousness.
World War II facts about African Americans and the battle of the bulge:
African Americans were relegated to service units until the battle of the bulge, troops were temporarily integrated for the battle of the bulge.
how did the war impact African Americans back home?
blacks were needed as workers in defense jobs, as well in the factories left open by the draft. 2 million blacks went to work in the defense industry, with another 2 million joining the federal civil service. this drew more african americans to us cities.
how did the war give rise to civil rights thinking?
1. returning soldiers became impatient with/intolerant of the hypocrisy of fighting for freedom abroad but not having it at home
2. for those who didn’t go to war, exposure to better jobs and increased social mobility chafed with the continuation of segregation.