African musicians do not seek to combine sounds in a manner pleasing to the ear. Their aim is simply to ______. in all of its aspects through the medium of sound.
express life
In some African societies, women are not even permitted to touch a drum under any circumstance. In other societies, particularly those that have adopted the _______, certain types of drums may be played by women, for example, the water-drum or the bendere calabash drum found in Upper Volta.
Islamic faith
Having established two basic facts – that music is an integral part of African life from the cradle to the grave and that African music covers the widest ________, including spoken language and all manner of natural sounds – it may seem logical to conclude that everyone in black Africa must, by definition, be a musician. This is not necessarily the case in practice.
possible range of expression
Pygmy music is usually very sophisticated in rhythm and form, as well as in its ritual structure. Pygmies rarely sing in _______; the songs they perform to celebrate a successful hunting expedition are polyphonic in form with a fairly simple rhythmic pattern provided by hand-clapping and sticks struck one against another.
______ is a term used throughout West Africa to designate a professional musician.
One of the greatest dangers facing the traditional African musician today is an ______ engendered by the knowledge that most townspeople prefer the imported music dispensed, rather over-generously perhaps, by the radio and on records.
inferiority complex
In some societies, music is not conceived as a profession at all, a fact which is even more limiting. As things exist today, then, traditional music is threatened with eventual ____ and will gradually disappear unless immediate steps are taken to assure the future of its most essential ingredient – the musician itself.
The absence of machinery rules out industrial manufacture and the craft of ______ is a much more individual endeavor than it is among Western craftsmen. [It] depends largely upon the natural materials available and their dimensions, rather than upon established norms that would almost automatically guarantee instruments to be of a standard quality.
instrument making
The harp family is represented in certain areas of _____. African harps are used chiefly to accompany singers.
Central and West Africa
Some excellent recordings of the Seron are available. We would like to single out the solos played by an authentic griot from the Kankan region of Guinea, a griot who ably demonstrates the resources of the instrument. This is purely instrumental music of a very high quality and although the musician knows absolutely nothing about American jazz, it is hard to listen to his playing without being reminded of Negro- American music, notably the ______.
Modern Jazz quartet
The ______ is a delightful instrument and the music of the African flute is particularly accessible to non-African ears, mainly because it has a universal timbre.
The ______ is a conical, collapsible oboe whose two constituent parts are linked by a tiny chain. A metal tube containing the reed is slotted into a wooden body that is covered with leather. The base of the body, which has four finger-holes, widens out into a bell. The reed (which is literally a piece of reed) fits into the upper end of the metal tube that is immediately above a small iron disc soldered to the tube. When the musician places the reed in his mouth, his lips rest against this disc, which hermetically seals the air reservoir that is constituted by his mouth. Such a technique is aimed at producing a continuous sound that does not depend on the musician’s breathing, but is only interrupted if he so desires.
_____ is not restricted to praises or entertainments, but is used to accompany the daily activities of the monarch.
Court music
The _____ is the musical instrument most widely used by Africans.
human voice
_____ thus grows out of the information and rhythmic onomatopoeias of speech. In song these intonations must be respected.
We have dwelt on the importance of _____ in African music because this is what chiefly distinguishes it from the other art forms of black Africa. No other art is quite so specifically African. Any talented sculptor could reproduce a Negro mask or statuette, but music is quite another matter; it entails the use of instruments that are made specifically in order to express _________.
The Pygmies are believed to be the ______ of Africa and their music is in every sense authentically African. It is totally collective, not at all monotonous, deeply significant; and indisputably it plays an integral part in black African life.
earliest inhabitants
18. Elements of texture, rhythms, melody and ______ were preserved in both African and Afro- American music despite efforts to destroy African culture.
linguistic influences
The _____ (of Burundi), whose lives are centered about their cattle, have songs for herding cattle home in the evening; songs of praise of cows; songs for drawing water for cattle, etc.
African music is characteristically ______, though African musicians do not actively conceptualize the abstract principles of their music.
polyrhythmic and polyphonic
A ______ of sound is always desirable (even on wind instruments) as is evident from the predominance of plucked string instruments as opposed to bowed strings.
percussive quality
_____ are used both as a melodic and an accompanying instrument. The musical bow often appears with a resonator attached either in the middle or at the end of the bow; the mouth is often used as a resonator as well.
The sanza (Central Africa, Mozambique, etc.) mbira (Southeast Africa), kembe (Central Africa), or limba (East Central and Southeast Africa), are other variations of _____ found in the region.
thumb pianos
Vertical wooden or bamboo flutes, whistles, mirlitons (a kazoo-like instrument), transverse trumpets and horns of ivory (frequently with raised embouchures) and ocarinas are included in the _____ category of African instruments.
The _____ (empty water jar) is an important percussion instrument commonly found in Ankole, Bugisu, Sebei, and Kitosi areas; the rhythms produced are used to accompany singing and dancing.
_____ traditionally visit their patrons and lodge in each of their homes for a few days bringing their entire family with them.
The _____ make music on all occasions all day long. The sanza, the most common instrument, is used to accompany dancing and singing and is played only by men. The one-stringed fiddle, however, is played by both sexes.
generic name for wind instrument
generic name for a stringed instrument
the practice of breaking a melody into short phrases or single notes played by different instruments or sung by different voices
instruments – such as gongs, bells, and rattles – in which the material of the instrument itself vibrates to make the sound without the use of stretched membranes or strings
one of the most popular African drums used outside of Africa
plucked idiophone; category of instrument whose sound is produced by the vibration of thin blades of metal, wood, or other material
generic name for a drum
early instrument consisting of a taught string usually attached to each end of a flexible stick and often using a gourd or the player’s mouth (mouth bow) as a resonating chamber
musical bow
five-note scale
pentatonic scale
characteristic quality of sound that distinguishes one voice or instrument from another
high-pitched warbling sound usually produced by women
sung syllables that have no specific meaning
East African zither consisting of a single string stretched back and forth across a wooden sounding board at different tensions to create six or seven distinct notes.
one of several names for the African lamellaphones known generally as “thumb pianos”
_____ may be the oldest inhabitants of the African continent, but their prehistory is obscure. Their anatomy, language, and culture are unique among indigenous African peoples
Tribes of _____ (e.g., Sogo, Ganda, and Acholi) prefer quick and “hot” rhythms in dancing. Slow and graceful rhythms are popular among the Tusi (Watusi), Kiga, and Karamojang dancers.
East Africa
The ______ is carved from a solid log. This is the bass drum rhythm in many African drumming ensembles.
djun djun
A small, pear-shaped, stringed traditional lute.
A conical, collapsible oboe. Wooden body covered in leather.
The _____, a harp-zither, originated in southern Cameroon and is played in the Bamou court
______ music features percussion ensemble and a chorus of singers. Its original purpose was to prepare Ewe warriors for battle and to greet the triumphant warriors, and commemorate deceased warriors.
______ drumming traditionally accompanied wrestling, which is and was extremely popular along the Guinea Coast.
_____ is a musical genre formed in Zaire and the Congo in the early 20th century and has become a pan- African genre.
Musical instrument of ancient Egypt. Shaped like a conical oboe and is a double-reed woodwind instrument. Played at weddings, accompany bellydancers, and usually played in duos or trios. Usually accompanied by bass drums.
A large goblet drum. The body of this drum is ceramic and the head is made from a single piece of calf skin.
Though many aspects of their lives are inaccessible (knowledge of religious practices, for example), it is known that the forest is the source of all good and for spiritual and practical manifestations for the ______.
Performances by some of _______ greatest musician are heard featured on traditional instruments including the oud, darbouka, tarija, and bendir and tar drums.
Burkina Faso, Cape Verde# (Island – African/Portuguese), Chad* (Northern), Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali* (Northern), Niger* (Northern), Senegal, Sudan
Sudan Area
Benin, Cote D’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea* (Sudan), Liberia Nigeria* (Sudan), Sierra Leone, Togo
Guinea Coast Area
Cameroon, Congo, Central African Republic* (Sudan), Dem. Rep. of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe (Island – African/Portuguese)
Congo Area
Burundi* (Congo), Comoros (Island – African/Malayo-Indonesian/Arab), Djibouti, Eritrea* (Sudan), Ethiopia* (Sudan), Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius (Island – African/Arab/Portugese/Dutch), Mozambique, Rwanda* (Congo), Reunion, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zanzibar
Eastern Cattle
Angola* (Congo), Ascension (Island – African/Portuguese/French/British), Botswana, Lesotho, Madagascar* (Island – African/Indonian/Muslim), Mauritius* (Island – Arab/Malay/Portuguese/Dutch/French), Namibia St.Helena* (Island – African/Portugese/Dutch/British), South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia* (Congo), Zimbabwe* (Eastern Cattle, Congo), Seychelles* (Island – African/Arab/French)
Koisan Area
Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania (which overlaps the Sudan region), Morocco, Tunisia, Western Sahara
Northern Africa
From the beginning of the course we have discussed ways in which the _______ that surrounds music has a tremendous impact on its development.
We also saw the difference ways that disparate political and social situations in the same environment yield different results, as with the musicians who focused on ______ in the South Africa (Khoisan Area) versus those who chose to embrace the mainstream.
“rhythms of resistance”
Those who retain qualities of traditional African music are obvious. We examined the difference between the erosion of musical tradition on the African mainland as opposed to the almost complete eradication of traditional roots on most ______ around the continent.
_______, the incendiary Nigerian saxophonist, bandleader and inventor of Afro beat, “joined ancestors,” as he would have put it, on August , in Lagos, Nigeria.
Fela Anikulapo-Kuti
Fela preached in ______, sprinkled with the Nigerian tribal language
pidgin English
What are some of the chief musical instruments used in Ghana?
drums, rattles, bells
How are the different types of drums (membranophones) constructed?
single hollow log or in bands of wood
What is the relationship between language and drumming?
they follow the same tonal inflections
In what different ways are drums played and used to communicate?
sticks, hands and by compressing tension string
The Kingdom of ________ is generally given the dates 9th to the 13th century CE by historians. It marks the beginning of a series of empires in West Africa that were involved in extensive commercial trade.
The Kingdom of ________ includes all of Ghana plus a lot more territory! During its time, it was the second largest empire in the world only after the Mongolian empire in Asia. The dates that historians have designated for this Kingdom are from the 13th to 15th centuries CE.
The exact origins of the Kingdom of ______ are not clear to historians, although there are records of the King Kossoi accepting Islam around 1009 CE. This began an integration of commerce and religion to gain and maintain power that would continue throughout the history of the Kingdom of _______. Islam became a unifying force for the people and an important factor for maintaining state power.
The region known as the _______ lies in North Africa, in what are now the countries of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. This region underwent significant changes beginning in the 7th century CE that led to a shift in its dominant religion to Islam. Before this time, the population consisted of a mix of Christians, Jews, and people practicing indigenous religions.
When the great _______ empire reached the zeniths of its power, it extended its boundaries and exercised power over all the west African lands, from the mouth of the river Volta in the west and eastward to the present day Congo and to the delta of river Niger in the east e.g. Ghana, Republic of Benin, both across the borders of modern Nigeria. Onitsha on the Niger and many other cities.
What best describes the ghawazi?
a troupe of mizmar players
What Western instrument is most like the rababah?
Tar and duff are equivalent names for:
frame drums
What best describes the sagat?
finger cymbals
The Zar ritual is meant to do what?
heal illness by banishing evil spirits
Which is NOT true of the Zar ritual?
Only men are allowed to be involved in the Zar ritual.
A single-string zither used by East African cattle keepers 500 years ago:
This instrument is like a xylophone, played by three people.
Generally drum ensembles accompany sport or dance ceremonies. However, two musical pieces in the second Wolof drumming video featured a drum ensemble playing in a concert setting. Which of these choices is not one of the notable or unusual aspects of this Wolof drumming video?
female drummers
Where did the performance of the second Wolof drumming video take place?
An abandoned slave house on the Ile de Goree
Global African music reflects ______ of a people who have survived in spite of oppression and suffering.
the spirit and expressions of a people
Global African musics have become a mouthpiece for ________.
protest and resistance
Global African music permits and encourages
freedom of expression, experimentation, and individual interpretation
Relying only on Western theories and concepts is dangerous for several reasons. Not only does this lead to _______, but the views of Westerners may not be in the best interest of the global community.
mental bondage
Africa is a very large continent. Large enough, in fact, to contain ________. It is about 5,500 miles across the Continent, both east to west and north to south.
the United States, China, India, and Argentina combined
The African continent, and particularly sub-Saharan Africa, has an extremely lengthy period of human prehistory. Over one hundred years ago __________ hypothesized, on the basis of the limited evidence available at that time, that Africa would prove to be the homeland of the human species. In the last fifty years researchers in fields as diverse as archaeology and genetics have convincingly demonstrated the correctness this thesis.
Charles Darwin
Most of the fossil remains connected with the early Paleolithic are ________.
As early as _______ people living near the shores of lakes formed on the upper Nile, as well as on the upper river itself, lived in small villages, made fishing gear and boats, and produced some of the earliest pottery known.
16,000 BCE
The rulers of ancient Egypt were known as ‘pharaohs.’ They were believed to be the incarnation of the god, ________.
Archaeological evidence suggests that foraging survived in the lands of the modern Sudannic belt and Guinea forest much longer than they did in the Nile valley. The _______ was relatively stable and the gathering and hunting communities were under no particular pressures to change their ways.
Among the African pantheon, ______ was senior, known as “God, the creative force of the universe”; Orulna was the diviner and symbol of wisdom.
_________ were sometimes, but not always, accompanied by prayers; but short, extempore, direct prayer was a common act of worship among practically all African ethnic groups, with long and more formal prayers being less common.
Sacrifices and offerings
_______, which have a historical basis that is embellished by imaginative and fictional elements.
Myths generate legends
What Nketia calls the _______, Jones terms “background rhythm,” pointing out that it is most African Music, Religion, and Narrative frequently played by a clapperless bell called the gankogui.
“time line”
An idiophone (_______) may be broadly defined as any instrument upon which a sound may be produced without the addition of a stretched membrane or a vibrating string or reed.
Literally, “self sounding”
__________ may be open-ended or stopped, and may be designed for playing in vertical or transverse position.
The second type of aerophone found in African societies is the reed pipe. It is not, however, as widespread or as significant as the flute class. The ________ occurs in the savannah belt of west Africa, for example in Upper Volta, northern Ghana, Dahomey, and Chad, and is usually made out of the stalk of a millet or similar plant.
single-reed type
We also find ______ in Somalia, Chad, Cameroon, northern Nigeria, Upper Volta, and in eastern Africa along the coast of Kenya and Tanzania—areas with Islamic tradition.
double-reed type instruments
Widespread use is made of animal horns and elephant tusks as _________, which are generally designed to be side-blown.
Of the variety of chordophones (string instruments) found in African societies, the ________ appears to be the most wide-spread.
musical bow
Unlike zithers, lutes, and harps, which are found in widely separated areas over the continent, the lyre, an instrument whose strings run from a yoke to a resonator, seems to be concentrated in east Africa. One very large type, the begana, occurs in Ethiopia. It has eight to twelve strings, and is primarily used during Lent and other festivals of the Ethiopian Church, although it may be played outside the church. The more popular lyre, the six-string , is considerably smaller than the begana.
Generic name for a wind instrument
Generic name for a stringed instrument
A melody broken into short phrases or single notes, performed by more than one instrument or voice
Generic name for an instrument in which the material of the instrument itself vibrates to generate sound WITHOUT the use of stretched membranes or strings. For example, gongs, bells, or rattles
one of the most popular African drums outside Africa
generic name for a plucked idiophone; its sound is produced by the vibration of thin blades of metal, wood, or other material.
Generic name for a drum
Early instrument consisting of a taut string attached to each end of a flexible stick, using a gourd or the player’s mouth as a resonating chamber.
Musical bow
High-pitched warbling vocalization. In African culture, it is usually produced by women.
East African zither consisting of a single string stretched back and forth across a wooden sounding board at different tensions to create six or seven distinct notes.
One of several names for the African lamellaphones known generally as “thumb pianos”
UGANDA: trumpet of the Alur people, made of wood and covered with antelope or cow hide.
UGANDA: informal youth dance of the Acoli people
UGANDA: large, conical, double-membrane hand drum. Performed by a solo drummer.
UGANDA: gourd shakers
UGANDA: notched, four-holed flutes of the Acoli people.
UGANDA: one stringed fiddle of the Acoli people
GAMBIA: Mandinka hereditary praise singer and 21-stringed Mandinka harp player.
GAMBIA: 21-stringed Mandinka harp played by Mandinka hereditary praise singer.
GHANA: traditional basis for the “palmwine” style of Ghana, from which “highlife” and “juju” evolved
NIGERIA: Yoruba double membrane pressure drum, played with a curved stick.
NIGERIA: Nigerian urban popular music combining imported new-folk or “palmwine” styles of Ghana with Yoruba praise singing.
NIGERIA: name of a prominent ethnic group of Southeastern Nigeria and their language.
NIGERIA: Nigerian urban popular music that evolved from “highlife”
NIGERIA: Historian, praise-singer, and hereditary class of professional musician.
NIGERIA: Yoruba gourd rattle with a woven beaded cover
NIGERIA: Hausa “fool” or court jester related in quality to “The Yoruba Divine Trickster”, Esu (Eshu).
The Atumpan and DunDun are examples of what kind of instrument?
Talking drum
What can be used as a resonator the the Musical Bow?
The mouth, a gourd, or the ground
The Oud is the predecessor of what instrument?
The western lute
What is the name of the ethnic group that plays the Mbira Dza Vadzimu?
The Shona
Who is most well known for the Juju style?
King Sunny Ade
What is the main drum of Yoruba culture?
Music is NOT used in this everyday activity
collecting revenue
______ farmers in Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) perform at festivals druing the dry seasons, at which villagers pay the musicians for their efforts.
One of the most popular groups of professional African musicians are the _____, who go by other names such as Keita, Munadi, Diubate, Bibate, Kuyate, and Sory.
____ was exiled from South Africa in the 1960’s for her revolutionary ideas.
Miriam Makeba
Which of the following is an Egyptian percussion instrument?
ECR: The most important dance of the Acholi people is known as the ____.
ECR: This instrument comes in various sizes and is the most popular harp-like instrument of the Acholi.
ECR: Daniel Owino Misiani is a Kenyan musician known as…
the “King of History” and “Grandfather of Benga”
ECR: Taareb is…
Zanzibar’s mst popular musical genre, also known as “Swahili wedding music”
ECR: What is the main focus of Watusi Music?
ECR: The traditional Watusi dance, the intore…
reenacts war traditions
I.K. Dairo was famous for intrducing what instrument to Juju music?
the accordion
Who is the inventor of the Afro-beat style?
Fela Kuti
Highlife, a type of music genre originated from Guinea Coast area, spread quickly and gained popularity in Western Africa. It is most distinguishable musical instrument is….
electric guitar
Some instruments from the Khoisan region:
talking bow, mbira, penny whistle.
Some tribes of the Khoisan area:
Zulu, Bushmen, KhoiKhoi
Shona music is traditional music from what country or region of the Khoisan?
The krar is what type of instrument?
What is a chivoti?
Oblique flute
What is the largest tribe in Ghana?
Where do Congolese pygmy tribes traditionally live and why is their home threatened?
Rain forest, deforestation
______ is a form of folk music that originated in Oran, Algeria from Bedouin shepherds, mixed with Spanish, French, African and Arabic musical forms, which dates back to the 1930s and has been primarily evolved by women in the culture. _____ literally means “opinion” but is colloquially used as an interjection along the lines of “OH, YEAH!”
____ was the incendiary Nigerian saxophonist, bandleader, and inventor of Afro-beat
Fela Anikulapo-Kuti
The first truly international star of African music, _____ specialized in Juju music, a lively mixture of traditional Yoruba social dance drumming, songs, and praise poetry, Latin American rhythms, and Christian church hymns, performed on guitar, percussion, and talking drums.
I.K. Dairo
_____ is a popular performer of Yoruba Nigerian Juju music, a pioneer of modern world music and classed as one of the most influential musicians of all time.
King Sunny Ade
The drummer and unofficial music director of the late Fela Kuti’s band, Africa 70, from 1968-1979, _____ helped create the sounds of Afro-beat and Asiko music.
Tony Allen
_____ is one of the few women playing the male-dominated mbira-based music of the Shona people.
Stella Rambisai Chiweshe
Cesaria Evora specializes in the Portuguese folk/cabaret ballad called Morna, a moderately paced, highly expressive song-form characterized by meandering minor-key melodies and lyrics which express suffering, hope, and above all, the all-encompassing Portuguese concept of “saudade” or nostalgia. Her music is typical of that which emerged in _______.
Cape Verde
MAC: What was the relationship between Africans and Europeans when trading posts were first established on the West Coast?
Partnership between maritime traders
MAC: when did the relationship between Africans and Europeans change drastically?
MAC: by 1914, what two African countries remained outside of European control?
Liberia and Ethiopia
MAC: What was the general European governors’ attitude with regards to the seizure of African land?
Seize African territories, then rule as though there were no inhabitants
MAC: What shapes of resistance did some African protests take?
Many different shapes. (lol)
MAC: What happened with the Ashanti people in Ghana during this European colonial era?
They offered a peaceful bid to the British to form chartered companies
MAC: What final insult led to a renewed outbreak of war in Ghana?
British commander wanted to sit on the sacred throne.
MAC: In European propaganda, what “orphan infant” was left at “John Bull’s” doorstep?
MAC: What European settlers brought a new source of conflict to Africa before 1900?
Dutch, British, German and French
MAC: In 1901, what became of a million acres of African land?
Given to European settlers.
MAC: What euphemisms did Europeans use during this era of oppression?
Hammering, indoctrination
MAC: What British leader opposed the oppression in East Africa?
Winston Churchill
MAC: In 1915, how many acres of land were given to 1000 British settlers?
4 million
MAC: What was one of the chief ways that the British forced Africans to work?
MAC: How was colonialism different in Nigeria?
Country was only “supervised” under indirect rule
MAC: How was British colonialism in Nigeria different than French colonialism in Senegal?
Senegalese could become French citizens
MAC: Where was France’s oldest colony in tropical Africa?
MAC: Who was Blaise Diagne?
A Senegalese who was assimilated
MAC: What was monoculture in Senegal?
Emphasis was placed on a single cash crop
MAC: What was the primary purpose of the African railways?
To STEAL Africa’s mineral wealth. (MUAHAHAHAHA)
Sports and dance gave African Americans the opportunity to engage their African _____ and move their bodies in profoundly graceful and rhythmic fashions.
In many cases, they moved their bodies in _____ fashion with the head, arms, legs, and feet moving at different rhythmic beats.
The ______ scrutinized with omniscient perception the rhythmic and harmonious relationship among the heavenly bodies during each vernal equinox position. They recognized that the movement of the celestial bodies represented the ever-present spiritual force of the creator. Therefore, for them to be in harmoney with this spiritual force, it was necessary to keep the body moving.
Body movement, in their minds, would force the blood in their bodies to continue its circular rhythmic flow, force the nervous system to send impulses throughout the body, and drive the endoctrine glads to secrete hormones that control feelings and help open the “mental conscious door.” The opening of this door would allow the _____ to connect one spiritually with the outside world. They also experienced a transmigration of the sould accompanied with the precognition that the past, present, and future are one.
pineal gland and melanin
The idea of ______ involves the notion of things fitting together but being composed of many fractured little parts. That is, one does not think of one long note, but [of] many notes sounded in arpeggiated fashion to come together… The size and extent of these unities can change… In social relationships, people alternately delineate factions and relationships and the idea of [the] unity of people.
______ involves certian patterns that emerge in the epic performance, which depend upon particular circumstances and may change from one event to another. The episodes of the epic are not necessarily performed in chronological order.
The ______ say, epic is eternal — it never dies. And thus no single performance can encompass the total epic.
A highly developed system of ______ penetrated East Africa historically for centuries, creating a system of cultural influences extending from as far east as the island of Zanzibar, linking across the Indian Ocean to India and beyond, as well as to areas deep within Central Africa.
trading networks
In traditional African societies, _______ is generally organized as a social event.
For many ______, the concept of “music” does not exist, at least not in the sense we may be most familiar with.
East Africans
Fela’s concept of ______ was more than a symbolic form of dissent; for many, this pan-African Utopia was a way of life as well as a state of mind.
revolutionary community
Fela comes from a(n) ______ background.
upper class, ecclesiastical
Almost all of Fela’s wives were raped by ______.